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The best military technologies that could bring a breakthrough!

Military Technologies

Role of technology in military, warfare and other sectors

Technology is one of the things that change constantly but help others in return. Sometimes, the changes might harm us, but technology improvement has always made our work easy. From the economic sector to the military industry, technology has played a significant role globally. Military technology refers to the introduction, development, and constant improvement of military equipment used in warfare. Some technologies in the military have brought a significant breakthrough to war, and some are getting ready to fascinate people; the inventions have enchanted people too. So, let us look at those technologies and do not miss to admire them!

Robots accompanying the human squads!?

It will be something unique and new if the robots accompany the soldiers in the warfares. Isn’t it? The idea of bringing robots into the war field comes from the DARPA Squad X Experimentation Program. In addition, the concept involves nesting robots into Marine and Army units, specifically infantry squads. The best part of this invention is that the marines could detect enemies with the help of robots and plan assault before the enemies found out about Marines being over there.

hypersonic missile

The U.S. hypersonic missile- Fast and Furious

Hypersonic missiles from the US have been introduced recently that fly five times the speed of sound or faster than that. The missile is renowned as the ultimate first-strike weapon, making it difficult for ballistic missile interceptors to catch them. Also, Russia and China followed the invention after the US.

Increase in the introduction of reality headsets

To track enemy vehicles, enemies, tankers, troops in warfare, infantrymen and other soldiers were offered augmented reality headsets. This helped the army glance at the war field once and detected robots supporting the soldiers’ squad.

Development of a large number of aircraft and helicopters

Armies have come up with unique drones, planes, helicopters, and other pieces of equipment in military aviation. They have been constantly developed and improved to result in highly equipped, operated autonomous aircraft and helicopters.

The power of V-280 and SB-1 Defiant

SB-1 Defiant was the first imminent, biggest and earliest flight capable of flying almost 290 mph. On the other hand, V-280 hit over 120 mph in forwarding flight when subjected to the first trial ever. V-280, introduced by the Bell Helicopters, has shown its excellent skills.

Revealing light tank prototypes

The introduction of unique light tank prototypes and modification of Griffin and M8 Buford’s updated version was one of the breakthroughs in military technology. The tanks were designed so that no matter what designs the army choose, they were of great help to the infantries.

These were the significant military types of equipment and technologies invented that brought a breakthrough in the advancement of military technology!

 

Pakistani Intelligence, global reach and power projection.

Pakistani Intelligence

Nations use tremendous revenue to ensure that they have the best security in their armed forces. They do this to ensure that their citizens are safe from external and internal attacks. Although this is an excellent effort the governments take, their intelligence service also influences their countries’ security.

From sophisticated spies to internet hackers, a country will significantly depend on the effectiveness of intelligence services to provide safety to its citizens. With this knowledge, many nations have worked extra hard to create the most effective intelligence services for their countries. These intelligence services are also known to be at the forefront of the government’s decision-making. Some of the top intelligence services globally include the CIA in the USA, the RAW in India, the Inter-Services Intelligence in Pakistan, and many more.
This article will tackle more on the Pakistani intelligence service, also known as the ISI. We will also talk about how much power the service has on its hands and some accusations against the service. We will also talk about the Inter-Services Intelligence global reach and their power projection in different areas.

About Pakistani Intelligence ISI

Ranked by the American crime news as the number one spy agency, Inter-Services Intelligence was started in 1948. The Inter-Services Intelligence was reported to be the best and the most substantial intelligence agency in the world. The agency works almost invisibly and deceptively to protect the most valuable assets of Pakistan. The agency takes part in all manner of security that concerns Pakistan. For instance, the agency might advise the Pakistan army in handling the most suitable and effective countermeasures to ensure top-notch safety in Pakistan. The Inter-Services Intelligence is known to be an intelligence service very close to the Pakistan army.

The agency works to neutralize any internal and external attacks on Pakistan, and it also pays heed to political matters in the country. The agency also has had its fair share of accusations. We will look into some of the Inter-Services Intelligence allegations, especially the latest ones in global news.

Pakistani Intelligence Power Projection on Pakistani

A nation’s intelligence service mainly shapes the modern country’s battlefields, which is no different in Pakistan intelligence. In Pakistan, the Inter-Services Intelligence is shaping the army to lead Pakistani while the civilian government is shielding it. Although the PM of Pakistan gets to choose the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence from the advice of the army chief, it does not mean that the army chief’s loyalty is to the civilian government. It means that the army chief gets to decide who is best suited in helping him fulfil his plans for the whole country.

In Pakistan, no matter what power or authority you may have, you can never question the Inter-Services Intelligence over the country’s running. The PM Nawaz Sharif tried to challenge the Inter-Services Intelligence, and he was in for a rude shock. He was forcefully removed from his post based on some trumped-up charges and sent to prison for the whole duration of the elections to enable the army chief’s choice Imran Khan to gain power as PM.

The other political parties vying for the PM seat understood whom the Inter-Services Intelligence wanted as the PM and refused to comment. Nawaz Sherrif was later released when it was time for Imran Khan was ready to take office. This was enough to showcase what the Inter-Services Intelligence wanted and whom they wanted as PM for Pakistan. This also explains why there was a crackdown on people who were against the prime minister in 2019.

In the political race, Asif Ali Zardari was also threatened that he withdrew from the race and later on was largely ignored. The high court judge of Islamabad was the only one who lay bare the intentions the ISIS but was sacked afterwards on the recommendation of the chief army.

The main reason for his removal of this high court judge was his opposing solid views on the Inter-Services Intelligence and the army. In his statement, he stated that the judiciary and even the media were under the army. The judiciary and the media were not at liberty to decide except the direction of the army. If he had stayed on the high court judge for longer, he could have put a hold on the Inter-Services Intelligence, which is why the Inter-Services Intelligence would have anyone else on the seat instead of him. The removal of this judge was under the recommendation of Mian Saqib Nisar, the chief justice who was the same chief justice who ruled the ouster of Nawaz Sharif. The sentencing of Mr Sharif was under incorrect inputs showing other politicians that they should stay under the army rule or else they would face the onslaught of both the judiciary and the army.

Pakistani Intelligence Power Projection on the Media

Some anti-establishment writers and some bloggers have seen their homes ransacked due to the views they may have posted on their blogs. Some have been kidnapped only to come back later with total amnesia about what had happened to them. Only a few of these writers and bloggers have been able to escape. Those who have managed to escape have left the country with claims of the Inter-Services Intelligence attacks and the supporters.

Taha Siddiqui is the latest victim of the attacks on Inter-Services Intelligence and army critics. Siddiqui, however, managed to escape and narrated his incident with the Pakistani Intelligence ISI. The New York Times reported the Taha Siddiqui incident in a post where he had this to say

“it has been an open season on journalists and critics of Pakistan’s military for years now. Disappearances, extrajudicial killings, torture and intimidation – all have been brought to bare and in the vast majority of the cases, no one has ever been brought to justice.”
The media personnel kidnapped and later released have preferred leaving the country searching for their safety. More recently, there has been another case where the dawn journalist, Cyril Almeida, alongside Nawaz Sharif, was accused of treason following an interview that Cyril had with Nawaz Sharif. In his interview, Nawaz Shariff had stated, ” should we allow them to cross the border and kill 150 people in Mumbai.”

The journalist face so much pressure that he had stopped publishing his weekly column. The case is still in progress, but that tells you that you should never challenge the army in Pakistan, or the Inter-Services Intelligence will eventually come after you.
Newspapers and TV channels in the country have been restricted on what they share by the ISI. All the Inter-Services Intelligence needs is to make one call, and the media house can be blocked or restricted. Media heads are sometimes briefed on what they should report regarding the security of the country. Some reporters have been sacked on the grounds of being anti-army biased of what they say when reporting. This means that the citizens only get informed on what the Inter-Services Intelligence wants them to know.
By this time, Pakistan has remained the only nation with its army controlling 75% of its economy with only its enterprises.

Conclusion

Pakistan’s citizens fear the Inter-Services Intelligence and its goons more than they fear terrorists in their country. The Pakistan intelligence service’s global reach is also influential in that they can even control the rulership in Afghanistan. Consider that the Intelligence of Pakistan can deploy a troop of armies to Afghanistan and help the Taliban government is one factor that shows the power that Pakistan’s intelligence has over some few nations.

6 New Military Technologies

Military Technologies

The new discoveries in science and security will provide improved defence equipment, weapons, and all related hear to the military. The biggest governments are investing billions in creating new military solutions that will replace the older technology. Universities, defence contractors, and small tech startups are coming up with better alternatives to help the military on the ground. While war is not an option, military technologies are a treat for the tech geeks who are interested in learning about high-tech security and defence products. These new military innovations are meant to perform on ground, water, and space. Here is a list of the new military technologies that will get introduced to the mass soon by the government.

Unmanned submarine hunter

Self-steering bullets

While it may seem like a cool sci-fi gadget from a secret agent, self-steering bullets are no longer fiction. These .50 calibre bullets have tiny sensors that can change the course midair, giving the shooter a sniperlike accuracy and the ability to easily hit moving targets.

Unmanned submarine hunter

This underwater drone concept of a submarine hunter is a special project from DARPA to create Anti-Submarine Warfare Continous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV). This Sea Hunter can track and hunt submarines for months without any manual assistance.

Laser Cannons

The sci-fi laser cannons are now a reality with the Laser Weapon System tested by the Navy. These laser cannons will be used in ships and protect them from small boats and drones that are hard to shoot with other arms. Boeing is working with the US army to create truck-mounted lasers that will zap the threats instantly.

Plasma Protection Field

Boeing has created a system that can protect vehicles from blast damage by creating plasma fields. An ionized airfield will deflect the incoming blast and protect whatever is inside it. However, it cannot stop the projectile attacks like rocket-propelled grenades or missiles. This technology may also be used later on in vehicles to prevent damage from a blast.

Invisibility

We do have some of the best and creative camouflage systems to hide soldiers and vehicles from human sight. But these are not enough for the infrared vision systems and other security measures. Scientists at the University of California are working on creating invisibility patches made from the structural protein found in squids. It is called reflectin and can change the wavelengths that can go unnoticed for night vision systems.

New bomber

New bomber

The world knows about the bomber aircraft that the US Military already has. But the true fans are waiting for the next-generation Long-Range Strike Bomber. It will have a sleek airframe made from a hardened reflective material that can trick the radars. It will provide total stealth, high speed, and heavy bomb cargo capacity. While it is still a concept, it has a multibillion-dollar contract with Northrop Grumman and other subcontractors.

Learn About The Independent Guernsey Trust Company

An independent guernsey trust companies provide legal entities that act as a fiduciary, agent, or trustee on behalf of a person or business for the purpose of administration, management, and the eventual transfer of assets to a beneficial party. The trust company acts as a custodian for trusts, estates, custodial arrangements, asset management, stock transfer, beneficial ownership registration, and other related arrangements.

What is an Independent Guernsey Trust Company

An Independent Guernsey Trust Company is one of the services provided by the Official Trustee. They are not registered as an attorney or law firm in the Channel Islands and they do not provide tax advice. The OAG defines an Independent Guernsey Trust Company as one that, “is an entity set up by way of a deed and formed for the purposes of the law and registered in Guernsey. The company is not a legal entity that is a subsidiary of, or controlled by another company or organization in Guernsey. The company is either resident or incorporated in Guernsey and its key functions are to act as an administrator for legal entities in the Channel Islands. The company is separate and distinct from its clients”. What type of clients does the OAG offer for the services provided?

Key Benefits of the Independent Guernsey Trust Company

Accountability. Independent Guernsey Trust Company is an independent business that can operate without direct contact with its management or owner. Interoperability. The bank enables funds to be transferred between entities using the highest levels of security with no need for contracts or emails or any fees. Trust. The independent Guernsey Trust Company is a regulated trust, which means it is independent and subject to oversight from the Guernsey Financial Services Commission (GFSC). The Independent Guernsey Trustees Authority (GFSC), the government entity responsible for the oversight body.

Conclusion

The advantages of the IFRS 16 (Financial Instruments) business tax system are becoming more visible. This is why any company that does not have to restate prior years figures for the latest standard will be relieved of the burden of having to declare a special or deferred tax expense. Nevertheless, these businesses will still be subject to tax rates above 100% if certain activities are conducted outside of Guernsey, or if they are carried out outside of the U.K.

Iraqi Intelligence, what is the sovereign capability without ISAF

Iraqi Intelligence

IRAQI INTELLIGENCE

Iraq is one of the key nations in the Middle East region. With a secure Iraq, the Middle East will be in a better position to be peaceful and prosperous. One of the ways in which Iraq will maintain its security will be its intelligence agency. Like many other nations, Iraq relies on intelligence to gather important information about both foreign and domestic threats. The Iraqi intelligence agency has accumulated a considerable amount of experience during the past 15 years since the United State invaded the country to depose the former head of state Saddam Hussein. With the help of the United States, Iraq has been able to construct a very competent intelligence agency. Recently, the United States announced that it will leave Iraq which will force the nation to be completely responsible for its intelligence operations.

ORGANIZATION

While the United States will be leaving Iraq and forcing the country to be on its own in terms of running its intelligence agency, Iraqi intelligence should be able to succeed in the future. One of the reasons why it will likely succeed at keeping the nation secure is because of its structure. As of today, the nation’s intelligence agency has a hierarchy of directors and heads of specific operations. With this organizational structure, Iraq will be very organized in terms of running its intelligence agency and completing tasks. The organization of Iraqi intelligence will result in more collaboration which allows the agency to run more efficiently.

STRUCTURE

Another reason why Iraq’s intelligence agency will likely prosper without America is because of its structure. The intelligence agency has separate departments that are responsible for specific tasks. Some examples would be supervising data gathering, overseeing fieldwork and also analyzing data and interviewing people. The intelligence agency is also responsible for tasks such as counter-terrorism, evaluating foreign threats and overseeing operations abroad. With a cohesive structure, Iraq’s intelligence agency is in a position to keep the nation secure without America’s assistance.

FUNCTIONS

Today, the Iraqi intelligence agency focuses on a variety of different functions in order to operate. These functions include certain tasks that enable the agency to ensure that the nation stays safe and secure at all times. With a variety of different functions within the intelligence agency, Iraq has the ability to handle any threats to the nation.

COMMON TASKS

On a daily basis, Iraq’s intelligence agency completes certain tasks. These tasks involve getting information, assessing it and then taking action based on this information. The common tasks have helped the nation maintain order and security throughout the nation over the past several years. By completing a number of different tasks, Iraq is able to make steady progress towards addressing threats and making sure that the nation is free of these threats.

MORE INDEPENDENCE

Once America leaves Iraq, the intelligence agency will be more independent. Without the presents of a foreign nation, Iraq will be completely responsible for all of its intelligence operations. This will help Iraq have more autonomy on how they run their intelligence agency and what specific operations they participate in each day. By having more independence, Iraq’s intelligence agency will have the ability to make its own decisions regarding intelligence operations without any foreign influences. This will help the nation look for its own ways to establish and maintain national security in the future.

RESPONSIBLE FOR OWN OPERATIONS

Since the United States is leaving the country and will no longer be involved in managing the intelligence operations, Iraq will now be responsible for its own operations. It will need to make independent decisions on whether to carry out a specific task or to establish national security measures. With more responsibility for its own operations, Iraq will need to successfully complete operations without the help of a foreign country such as America. It will now be completely accountable for any activities it’s intelligence agency decides to do from now on.

MORE COLLABORATION WITH REGIONAL COUNTRIES

In the near future, Iraq and its intelligence agency will likely have even more collaboration with regional countries. Since it is a Middle Eastern nation, it will have the opportunity to develop relations with other countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. More collaboration with Middle Eastern nations will enable Iraq to develop a reliable network of allies who can help the nation and the region stay secure in the future.

EASIER TO DEVELOP GOOD RELATIONS

As well as collaborating with regional countries, Iraq’s intelligence agency will also have an easier time developing good relations. Since it no longer has a foreign nation occupying it, other nations in the Middle East will trust Iraq a little more. As a result, they will have political officials, military leaders and citizens more willing to provide them with important information that pertains to Iraq’s national security. Good relations with these countries will help Iraq stay more safe and secure.

MUST RELY ON CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND RESOURCES

Now that the United States is no longer involved in overseeing Iraqi intelligence, the nation will now need to rely on the current knowledge and resources it has. The nation will need to focus on using all of the technology, methods and data it has gathered in order to conduct all intelligence operations. Since the current resources and knowledge is fairly advanced, Iraq’s intelligence agency will likely be capable of maintaining its security in the near future. However, some technology and resources may become obsolete in the future. As a result, it may need to rely on other nations including the United States to get updated resources to address new threats to its national security.

NO LONGER HAVE GUIDANCE FROM U.S.

With America leaving Iraq and ceasing its involvement with Iraq’s intelligence agency, Iraq will no longer have as much guidance from the United States. As a result, Iraq will need to be more self-reliant on assessing threats and conducting its regular operations. Iraq will need to find ways to get the most out of its current resources as well. In most cases, the nation should be fine without the guidance of the United States. However, it may have difficulty with some tasks and therefore need some help from America and other nations in the future. Seeking guidance from other nations will depend on Iraq’s ability to handle threats.

CURRENTLY HAVE THE TOOLS TO SECURE NATION

While Iraq will no longer have America assisting them with their intelligence operations, Iraq still has sufficient tools and resources to secure itself from threats. Over the years, Iraq has received technology and training from the United States to gather important data and use it to thwart threats to its national security. Based on the training and resources provided, Iraq has what it needs to combat terrorism, analyze information and complete tasks that will keep it secure. With its group of experienced leaders and operatives, the Iraqi intelligence agency is currently in a good position to protect itself from future threats without help from America.

WILL COLLABORATE WITH GOVERNMENT AND MILITARY

Since Iraq’s intelligence agency is more independent without America, it will now focus on collaborating with the government and the military. The intelligence agency will be more involved in providing information to both of these groups and working with them to secure the nation. More independence will help Iraq’s intelligence agency work with the government and military more directly now that America is no longer present.

CAN BE MORE AT RISK OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY

As of right now, Iraq’s intelligence agency is well equipped to secure the nation. However, the nation can be more at risk of political instability without America. Terrorist organizations and corrupt officials can initiate new threats and get resources that can prevent the intelligence agency from protecting Iraq from threats. Without the United States, the nation no longer has immediate support. As a result, it is more likely to experience some difficulties in maintaining national security.

MAY LACK ESSENTIAL RESOURCES IN THE FUTURE

America’s departure from Iraq can also put the intelligence agency at another disadvantage. Iraq’s intelligence agency may lack sufficient resources in the future. Some of the technology and methods may get outdated and insufficient to address future threats. As a result, it will need to focus on keeping its intelligence agency’s resources updated on a regular basis. If Iraq can update its resources, it will be able to keep itself secure in the future.

CORRUPTION CAN BE MORE COMMON

Once America leaves Iraq and is no longer in its intelligence activities, Iraq can be more prone to corruption. There can be rogue operatives in the intelligence agency, the government and the military who may jeopardize that nation’s security. More corruption can take place without the United States monitoring the intelligence agency, government and military. However, if Iraq maintains an honest government as well as carefully screening intelligence agency operatives and officials, it will be able to prevent future corruption.

EXPERIENCE WILL RESULT IN ADEQUATE INTELLIGENCE

One of the benefits of America’s involvement during the past several years has been its ability to provide Iraq’s intelligence agency with plenty of training and experience. Now that the intelligence agency has experienced operatives, it will have the expertise to keep the nation secure. By having an experienced group of intelligence agency operatives, the intelligence agency of Iraq should be very competent without America’s involvement.

CURRENT RESOURCES WILL LIKELY BE SUFFICIENT

While some resources can be outdated in the future, Iraq’s intelligence agency will likely have sufficient resources to protect itself from foreign and domestic threats. Today, Iraq’s intelligence agency currently has enough resources to thwart terrorist attacks, gather important data and analyze information in order to keep itself secure in the future. Iraq will not likely need any more resources right now in order to run its intelligence agency.

CAN WORK WITH U.S. IN THE FUTURE

Today, Iraq will run its intelligence agency without the aid of the United States. However, it can always work with America in the future. If the nation encounters any difficulties in managing its intelligence operations or needs updated resources, it can contact the United States and get assistance in the future. Although America is leaving Iraq’s intelligence agency to operate independently, it can always rely on the United States to assist them in the future if necessary.

IRAQ WILL BE FAIRLY SECURE NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

Based on its structure, resources, proximity to other nations in the region and positive relations with Middle Eastern nations, Iraq will have the means to stay secure in the immediate future. Iraq has accumulated a lot of resources, training and experience in order to carry out intelligence operations and address any threats that jeopardize the nation’s security. Even without the United States, Iraq has the ability to protect itself from any threat.

Most Excellent Military Tactics of All Times

Military Tactic

Everyone interested in military and war strategies would have heard about Sun Tzu’s Art of War. The book elucidates many war strategies that were tried and tested in the practical world of the famed Chinese general. Similarly, implementing carefully crafted war tactics led armies to victory even when the odds were against them.

Holding a line by constricted battlefield

The war tactic allowed the Greek army led by King Leonidas I to hold their stance and defeat the massive army of Xerxes for two days. Greek contingent of 7000 men held their position between a steep hillside and see. The geography of the battlefield didn’t allow Xerxes’ massive army of 70,000 men to use their colossal number to their advantage as the battleground was only limited to a few feet. Greeks maintained their flank for two days until they were betrayed by their own, Ephialtes. He told the Persian army about another path to Sparta around Thermopylae.

Surprise attack

Arminius was a German officer who lured Roman officer Varus into an ambush. He was marching with three contingents of 20,000 men through the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD to crush the German revolt. When all his army was forced to walk on a single path through the woods, Arminius attacked them with full force. The roman army was defeated both physically and mentally. Romans did not anticipate the attack as they considered that German tribes lack discipline.

Envelopment

The Russians surrounded the German army from Stalingrad and ambushed it from all sides starting from 19 November 1942. This manoeuvring of troops didn’t allow any necessary provisions to pass through the encircling Russian army. The only option with force is to find a way out, attack, or surrender. Operation Uranus was designed on this tactic which led Russian to tilt the balance in their favour. Soviets surrounded the Germans and attacked them with deadly bonds and tanks, thus sealing the fate of Nazi Germany in WWII.

Committing the reserve

One of the principles of war is to create maximum impact out of minimum efforts. It is done to keep a part of the force to handle any unexpected events like acting as a reinforcement for a vulnerable or weal flank. Napoleon devised a plan based on this strategy to make Astro-Russian forces attack his right flank in 1805. After attack. He was under tremendous pressure to attack with full force, but he resisted until his enemies could not retreat from their stance. He released his troops on unguarded enemies to smash their core and take them from the isolated left. The victory was only a consequence that followed in the battle of Austerlitz.

German strategist

Concentration of Power

Clausewitz, a German strategist, believed that the most crucial point in battle was to accumulate all the resources and know the exact moment on when to strike. The tactic of attacking only when necessary help in prioritising the artillery. Germans adopted the Flying Circus formation in 1917 in WWI to their advantage.

Russian Intelligence, global reach and power projection.

Russian Intelligence

Russian Intelligence and Current News

Due to an increase in Russian military on the Ukraine border, the Black Sea and in Crimea, soviet intelligence is frequently mentioned on the news. There is no way to be certain if Putin is interested in increasing Russian territories or intimidation. Approximately 120,000 troops including heavy equipment, modern aircraft, and military vehicles have been deployed near Ukraine.

Europe is now facing the most major military crisis since Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014. Soviet intelligence in Libya, Syria, Belarus and Georgia is ensuring a difficult life for diplomats. The aggressiveness of these intelligence agencies throughout North America snd Europe has been fairly well documented on the news. After the conclusion of an investigation lasting seven years, the Czech Republic has taken action.

Although some sources are unwilling to provide documentation regarding Russian intelligence, western sites are not among them. The result of this investigation was 18 Russian diplomats expelled by the Czech Republic due to an ammunition depot located close to Vrbetice established through GRU military intelligence. The GRU is one of the main intelligence agencies of the Russian Federation.

The Russian operatives proven to participate in sabotage used identical aliases as the agents using chemical weapons against a former spy in 2018. The resulting explosion killed two Czech citizens. Once enough evidence was collected, the Czechs decided the Russians went beyond a normal gathering of intelligence and declared their actions state terrorism. The response of the government was the removal of Rosatom, the nuclear energy supplier from Russian. This supplier was removed from the contract bidders for a nuclear plant.

Unmasking Russian Hybrid Operations

Despite playing innocent, Moscow becomes aggressive when foreign hybrid operations are revealed. Due to a disproportionate reaction, 20 Czech diplomats were expelled resulting in the paralysis of the small Czech embassy. The Czech government is currently deciding whether additional Russian diplomats should be expelled to even the playing field between the Russian Prague embassy and the Czech Moscow embassy.

An appeal has been made by the Czech Foreign Minister to the European Union for support. The 2018 Salisbury precedent when 200 Russian diplomats were expelled throughout North America and Europe due to an alliance between NATO and EU allies was involved. The Czech Republic incident is one of many involving allied countries targeted by Soviet intelligence including the GRU and SVR, the foreign counterpart.

Soviet Cyber Attacks and Election Interference

GRU and SVU intelligence was behind cyberattacks perpetrated last year against the United States. These destructive attacks affected more than 13 United States federal agencies and 80 American companies. The software management systems for Solar Winds were hacked by the Russians. The Russians have also been caught in attempts at hacking the World Anti-Doping Agency and the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons organization.

Interference accusations have been made against the GRU and SVR regarding elections in the United States, Moldova, and Macedonia. The Russians were accused of collusion with Serb intelligence five years ago for a failed coup. After aggressive Soviet intelligence operations were revealed, Russian diplomats were expelled from Poland and Bulgaria. Russia targeted crucial infrastructures in an attempt to destabilize societies by influencing political campaigns.

Some organizations understand the brazenness and reach of Russian intelligence including SovietIntelligence.com. The President of France has declared EU countries must draw a red line against using intelligence gathering and diplomatic missions to cover up coercion and destructive political interference.

Diplomatic Responses and Sanctions

Throughout history, the US and transatlantic allies reserved diplomatic responses and sanctions for acts of aggression involving the military. Once Crimea was annexed by Russia, new economic sanctions were imposed on the Soviet Union. This includes inhibiting transfers of technology in the deep sea drilling and energy sectors. Specific state enterprises were also sanctioned including food processing. Limitations were placed on Russian financial and banking transactions and exports.

For the last seven years, the EU has reviewed these sanctions in addition to an annual review by the United States, United Kingdom and Canada. The response has been much less harsh for Soviet intelligence operations inside both EU and NATO member states. Magnitsky laws have been passed due to Russian tax authority fraud including shaking down foreign companies in Russia. Sanctions have since been imposed on Russian entities and state officials for abuse of human rights.

The list of Russian officials with frozen assets and visa bans in Europe and North America continues to increase. Data available through social media is being used to determine the identity of Soviet intelligence agents. This information is intended to connect these agents to the location and timing of attacks. Agents directly implicated have been shamed by numerous countries. The issue is once they have returned to Russia, extradition is not possible and many are granted immunity.

Due to the history of Russian intelligence against the United States, the Biden administration has issued a response. The cyberattack on Solar Winds, 2020 United States election interference, manipulating polling party data from United States political parties and the belief a bounty was placed on United States troops stationed in Afghanistan were taken into consideration. The result was extremely tough sanctions against Russia.

Not only were 10 Russian diplomats expelled from missions in Washington and New York, but sanctions went into effect against eight Russian companies. Access is now limited to the sovereign debt market for Russia and United States banks for non-rouble and rouble currencies. Moscow will find it more difficult to raise finances or float bonds overseas. The United States is now ready to perpetrate cyberattacks against Russia.

President Biden issued an executive order providing room for additional economic sanctions against Russian intelligence if Russia does not desist specific activities based on intelligence. The last straw seems to be the sophistication and reach of the cyber intrusion on Solar Winds. The attack lasted for a year, a wide range of United States entities were attacked and Moscow obtained sensitive data. In addition to punishing Russia, Washington proved the United States is also capable of disruptions.

The offer of a summit was made to Putin by Biden. The intention was to show a pragmatic relationship is possible between the United States and Russia. There is an excellent chance Putin will remain in power for a long time with no changes in behavior. Diplomacy should not be offered to reward good behavior or diplomats will not be able to complete their work. Biden has simply informed Russian intelligence agents the United States will not tolerate this type of behavior but is willing to cooperate in other areas.

Russian Intelligence Agencies

During communist times, Soviet intelligence agents were attributed to the KGB. It made no difference whether these agents were suppressing dissidents in Russia or infiltrating powerful countries abroad. At this time, most people were unaware of the existence of the GRU. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, GRU became the prominent Russian intelligence agency and is currently still flourishing.

The United Kingdom blames the GRU for the nerve agent attack against Salisbury in 2018. This involved the poisoning of a former officer of the GRU and his daughter living in Britain at the time. The United States blames Russian for destructive cyberattacks. Operatives of the GRU are believed to have participated in conflicts in Syria and Ukraine.

More recently, connections have been established by the Czech Republic authorities regarding the two GRU agents allegedly responsible for the Salisbury attack. The deadly blast on the arms depot occurred in 2014. PakistaniIntelligence.com has revealed facts about the GRU. First, the GRU is a formal Russian military intelligence agency established over 200 years ago.

The agency was reorganized after the 1917 Russian revolution and in 1942 officially became the GRU. This was during the Second World War. The agency gathered intelligence information on both Germany and all allies of the country. During the time of the Cold War, the GRU penetrated the atom bomb program of Britain. Not only does the GRU run agents, but it also has special ops commandos with missions including sabotage and reconnaissance.

The GRU is active all over the world and responsible for spearheading the 1979 Afghanistan invasion. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, there was a split in the KGB secret police resulting in the FSB domestic version and the SVR foreign service. Despite this division, the GRU was still intact. In 2010 the name was changed to the GU or Main Directorate but the acronym, GRU remained.

According to a United States Congress report, the GRU is classified as a powerful, expansive and large organization. Very little information is available regarding the specific operations and size. The Russian Defense Ministry briefly mentions the role of the GRU, but there is no official website for the GRU itself. The ministry has stated the purpose of the GRU is to successfully implement the security and defense of policies of Russia.

The ministry also provides intelligence to officials to enable knowledgeable economic, technical, political, defense and environmental decisions. The GRU is encased in a tremendous amount of secrecy. This secrecy is so great, when the sudden death of Igor Sergun occurred in 2016, the place of death and cause were not revealed by the Kremlin in the original announcement.

The GRU Today

Sergun is a Russian official placed on the United States and European Union sanction lists after Crimea was annexed from Russia in 2014. The EU placed the responsibility of rebel support by GRU officers during the bloody conflict in east Ukraine on Sergun. According to the security analysts, Sergun was responsible for increasing the ranks of the GRU after drastic cuts were enforced.

While on Ukraine ground, the efforts of the agency in Ukraine were more efficient than that of the FSB. Igor Girkin was one of the top rebel commanders. His alias is Strelkov. The EU made accusations Girkin was an operative of the GRU. He was then added to the sanctions list. The death of Sergun occurred before significant changes were made to secret operations believed to be instigated through the GRU.

This included the hacking of campaigns for both the United States Democratic Party and the presidential campaign of Hilary Clinton in 2016. During this time, private communications were released in the tens of thousands in an attempt to discredit a candidate Russia believed to be hostile. Eventually, charges were made by the justice department including the involvement of 12 Russians believed to be GRU officers regarding the cyber attack.

The response of the Kremlin was no evidence was available showing a link between the 12 accused Russians, hacking, and military intelligence. If operations were instigated by Russia against United States Democrats and Ukraine operations, the presumed goals of the Russians were accomplished. To this day, control of the territory in question located in east Ukraine is in possession of the Russians. The 2016 election was won by Donald Trump and not by Hilary Clinton.

Some of the other operations believed to be committed by Soviet intelligence were failures. Due to the death of a woman, the operation in Salisbury had deadly consequences.

Sergei Skripal

The two operatives from the GRU allegedly sent to the United Kingdom did not succeed in the assassination of their presumed target. Instead of killing Sergei Skripal, the operatives left evidence behind as though they were amateurs. Some believe the disregard for CCTV cameras was a deliberate act to inform the world Russia will take substantial risks to pursue security for the country. Skripal received a conviction of treason and was imprisoned in Russia. In 2010, his release was secured with a spy swap.

During the same year the attack occurred in Salisbury, four additional agents were suspected of being members of the GRU. They were caught while in the Netherlands attempting to hack the chemical weapons watchdog wi-fi network. The ensuing investigation included the chemical attack taking place in Syria and the Skripal poisoning. These incidents also resulted in evidence being left behind both online and on paper. The Dutch authorities allowed the agents to return to Russia.

Iranian Intelligence, global reach and power projection.

Iranian Intelligence

Iran intelligence apparatus is comprised of many agencies, including the Council for Intelligence Coordination, the Intelligence Organization of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Intelligence Protection Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army, the Intelligence Protection Organization of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Iranian Security Police, the Iran Ministry of Intelligence, Oghab 2, the Parallel Intelligence Agency, the Prime Ministry Intelligence Office, the Second Bureau of Imperial Iranian Army, and others about which less is known.

Almost 83 million people live in Iran (2019). Not only does Iranian intelligence collect information about the country’s citizens, but it also has capabilities around the world. In this post, we consider what’s known of Iran intelligence as well as the aims and objectives of these agencies in considering the breadth and depth of their global reach and power projection.

The Council for Intelligence Coordination

Iran’s Council for Intelligence Coordination (the intelligence community) is thought to include 16 intelligence agencies. These agencies operate separately and in concert with each other. The Intelligence Coordinating Council ICC) is comprised of many agency heads. The Fars News Agency first announced the agencies in 2014.

Members of the Council include the Ministry of Intelligence Iran’s primary government-sanctioned intelligence agency. Fars News Agency also cites four other agencies, including the Intelligence Organization of the Revolutionary Guards, the Counter Intelligence and Intelligence of Revolutionary Guards, the Intelligence Unit of the Islamic Republic Army, and the Intelligence Unit of the Islamic Republic Police.

Others include the Iran Cyber Police, the Commander-in-Chief’s General Bureau for Intelligence Protection, the General Security and Intelligence Police, and the Center for Investigating Organized Crime.

The Ministry of Intelligence & Security of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Ministry of Intelligence is considered the primary Iranian intelligence agency. It is also a member of Iran’s Intelligence Community, also known as VAJA, VEVAK, or MOIS. At inception, the agency was referred to as SAVAMA. When it assumed the Shah’s Iran intelligence apparatus, it was called by the SAVAK moniker. This agency is one of Iran’s three sovereign ministerial bodies because of its domestic and international focus.

Current and reliable data on the Ministry of Intelligence is scarce. For instance, it’s obvious that the SAVAMA entity was supposed to replace SAVAK (the Iran intelligence agency in place during the Shah’s rule), but the amount of continuity between the two is unclear.

The roles of the intelligence organizations are similar although the foundational ideologies appear quite different. Western journalists believe that the post-Shah government wanted to rid itself of the taint of SAVAK but some SAVAK staff was retained after the change. These individuals are believed to have advocated the inclusion of liberal dissidents and members of the Iraq Ba-ath Party.

The Ministry of Intelligence was founded in 1983 after it abandoned, relegated, or subsumed other small intelligence agencies formed in various other government organizations. Since its founding, five ministers are known. The last minister, under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, left in 2013.

Chain murders in Iran

In late 1998, a political leader, his wife, and three dissidents were killed over a two-month period. Journalists investigated the killings and, by the middle of the next year, it was determined that the Ministry of Intelligence was in some way to blame for the murders.

International executions

In 2019, an online activist in opposition to Iran’s Ministry of Intelligence was murdered in Turkey. Later, a Turkish official claimed that the suspect confessed to implementing orders of Iranian intelligence officials of the Iranian consulate.

Intelligence Organization of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)

The IRGC is overseen by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard as an Iranian intelligence agency. It’s also overseen in part by the Council for Intelligence Organization. It was established under Khamanei’s leadership in 2009.

Stratfor believes that IRGC may be even more powerful than the Ministry of Intelligence. Increased influence and broadened authorities create competition and dissidence between the two authorities. Today, redundancy, powerplays, and rivalries are recognized between the IRGC’s Intelligence and the Ministry of Intelligence. Both have tried to downplay the seriousness of these disagreements in the attempt to present an appearance of unity.

Causes for the IRGC’s rise in power include the Ministry of Intelligence’s presumed role in chain murders (above). Power struggles between the Ministry of Intelligence and the supreme leader also reinforced the supreme leader’s apparent decision to support the IRGC. It’s not subject to government or legislative oversight. In addition, Green Movement protests (2009) called attention to the need for better control of the Ministry of Intelligence’s top echelon. Over subsequent years, protests rose over the worsening economic crisis in Iran. More tensions with the United States and its western allies arose after President Trump withdrew from the JCPOA nuclear accord.

The IRGC’s role in the politics and economy of Iran also led to the expansion of the agency’s authorities. According to IRGC watchers, the agency seems to be most active on a domestic level. Internationally, a group called Quds Force,a paramilitary group, is active.

The Intelligence Protection Organization of Islamic Republic of Iran Army

The organization, referred to by the acronym SAHEFAJA, is an intelligence agency tied to the Iran military apparatus. SAHEFAJA’s missions include counterespionage missions with the armed forces to neutralize, discover or prevent potential coups d’etat, subversion, or sabotages. Its common hierarchy works independently from Iran’s armed forces chain of command.

The Intelligence Protection Organization of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

This Iran intelligence agency within the IRGC is also part of the Council for Intelligence Coordination.

When the agency initially separated from IRGC (1984), it was primarily aligned with military intelligence initiatives. In 1991, the agency resurfaced as an independent agency reporting to Iran’s supreme leader. It was primarily tasked with the surveillance of IRGC personnel in attempts to combat espionage within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

The Intelligence and Public Security Police of NAJA “Security Police”

PAVA is the national law enforcement and security agent in Iran. It is an agency of Iran’s Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran and part of the Council for Intelligence Coordination.

PAVA also has several subordinate branches, including the diplomatic police, surveillance over Iran public facilities, intelligence, Foreign Nationals & Immigrant Affairs, and the Moral Security police:

• PAVA’s intelligence branch gathers operational intelligence, runs informant networks (collecting rumors, information, and news). This branch also identifies and arrests people engaged in illegal religious activity.

• Public Security Police fights against Iranian organized crime and enforces the country’s telecommunications laws. It’s also taken on the role of an economic police force, confronting numerous pyramid schemes and network marketers in Iran.

• Police supervising Public Facilities and Locations regulates and controls businesses, e.g. hotels, shops, and restaurants. It’s involved in the issuance and revocation of permits and licenses for these businesses and their workforce.

• Moral Security Police is an agency of PAVA. It serves as the center of the Islamic religious police force. It enforces sumptuary laws that restrict excessive spending patterns of the people. The Morality Patrol is an agency of this authority.

Iranian Intelligence Outside of Iran

According to a variety of news outlets, Iranian, along with Soviet, Iraqi, Chinese, and Pakistani intelligence extends well beyond Iran’s borders.

The Hill wrote about Department of Justice charges against the Islamic Republic of Iran. The filings charge that Iran directed at least four intelligence operatives to kidnap an Iranian-American journalist working for Voice of America from her New York Home.

President Biden’s administration seems to have downplayed the alleged kidnapping plot in attempts to avoid any disruption of nuclear power negotiations with Iran. Rather than label the incident as an act of terror targeting a citizen of the United States, it’s been called a “regrettable attempt” of Iran’s intelligence operatives to limit the free expression of journalists granted under the United States Constitution.

Indeed, journalists around the world have reported Iran’s history of targeting perceived enemies, e.g. embassies and foreign diplomats. Incidences of targeting so-called enemies began when the Islamic Republic was conceived. Student extremists in Tehran took over the U.S. Embassy on Nov. 4, 1979. Fifty-two Americans were held hostage for 444 days.

Iran intelligence has not failed to fuel the long arm of Tehran. Even during the leadership of self-proclaimed moderate Hassan Rouhani, Iranian intelligence operatives planned attacks or orchestrated assassinations. In 2020, U.S. notified the then-ambassador to South Africa about threats to her life from Iran. In 2021, sleeper cells in Iran planned attacks on UAE missions in Sudan and Ethiopia (U.S. Defense Department).

Iran Intelligence Apparatus and Afghanistan

In reality, the difference between Iran’s moderate and hardline politicians is often unclear. Obviously, Iran spends more on intelligence per citizen than most countries. Actions reported in the news over the past 40 years hint at the nation’s desire for global reach and power projection.

Iran has managed both sides of the equation in Afghanistan’s power struggle. It supported the recent Afghan government along with the Taliban, supporting the divisions in Afghanistan. Tehran improved its relations in Qatar, the Taliban’s political home office, to support the relationship between Iran and the Taliban.

What we know of Iranian intelligence is possibly surpassed by what we don’t know. However, the Shiite regime in Tehran has many reasons, including economic, strategic, ecological, and ideological ones, to back Afghan’s Sunni extremists.

“Defeat in Afghanistan”

On Aug. 6, Dawa Khan Menapal, the hedge of Afghanistan’s government information and media center, was assassinated. He was previously employed as a journalist and went on record about his belief that Iran supports the Taliban.

According to an Aljazeera report, Iranian president Ebrahim Raisi said that The United States’ “defeat” in Afghanistan should be viewed as a chance to “revive life, security and lasting peace” there.

The full list of reasons for Tehran’s backing may also reflect Iran’s need to access the Afghanistan-Iran water supply or to spread religious beliefs and culture to the Afghan people. More simply, Iran may want to eradicate Afghanistan’s alliances with the United States. Either way, Iran seems to be pro-Taliban in Afghanistan.

Chinese Intelligence, its’ global reach and power projection.

Chinese Intelligence
What Is The Purpose Of Chinese Intelligence Agencies?

What is Chinese Intelligence?

During the past few decades, the global impact and imprint of China have risen considerably. Despite this, the intelligence services of the country are not under global scrutiny. The scarcity of information regarding covert operations, power projections and global reach are difficult for the world to understand much less cope with efficiently. CIS or Chinese intelligence services remain successfully hidden from the global community.

Since the Chinese intelligence agency does not use either an acronym or a specific name, supreme secrecy is achieved. There are agencies working to uncover the truth such as those in the UK, US and Europe. Analysts have a lot of theories regarding the CIS to help the community understand their consistently changing interests, stakes and calculated projections. According to the more traditional concept, the CIS is different than any of the other intelligence agencies, including those of Iraq and Iran.

The strategy incorporated by this Chinese intelligence agency is similar to the concept of one thousand grains of sand. This type of thinking suggests that the CIS is reliant on many different methods for data collection as opposed to spending a lot of money on professional spies to perform espionage. These methods include:

• Businesses
• Academics
• Civilians
• Collection of low-quality information

Although the majority of this information is gathered by amateurs, it is the basis of the CIS. There has been consistent criticism for these methods due to misdirected efforts and overall generalizations regarding the counterintelligence efforts of many other nations. The majority of critics see the CIS as a conglomeration of numerous professional systems with the responsibilities of ISR or intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance.

These types of operations are performed both externally and internally. The most commonly used description is to serve the state by making informed decisions. Since the information gained can indirectly or directly help with the decision-making process of China, a thousand grains of sand analogy is appropriate.

The Pattern of Chinese Intelligence Agencies

Although national news agencies take different viewpoints into consideration, conventional patterns are just as important. China has a reputation for espionage activities and professionalism fitting the stereotypical description. Chinese intelligence agencies are unique due to the potential influence of the government regarding the majority of activities. One of the best descriptions of the CIS is functioning in circles of the most importance.

The core of CIS is using extended interests and influence at the perimeters. This enables the CIS to prioritize a wide range of professional systems for the purpose of performing counterintelligence while including the authoritarian state for all of the activities. Both military and civil agencies are included in the core. The main Chinese civil agency is called MSS or the Ministry of State Security. This Chinese intelligence agency includes the central ministry, numerous municipal agencies and provincial divisions.

The key focus of the MSS is surveying both internal and external threats to help ensure the security of the state. The agency also spies on foreigners for the creation of profiles to be used when recruitment becomes necessary in the future. The main focus of the MPS or Ministry of Public Security is domestic intelligence, although there are external and internal subsidiaries as well. The United Front Work Department has a wide range of responsibilities including internal and external.

The PLA pr People’s Liberation Army military agencies provide the Strategic Support Force which is the leader. This agency handles:

• Technical reconnaissance
• Intelligence
• Psychological warfare
• Cyber defense and offense

The PLA is also responsible for overseeing both the General Political Department and the General Staff Department.

How Does a Chinese Intelligence Agency Gather Information?

At the center of CIS operations, there are many areas used specifically to gather information. State media outlets are included such as a New China News Agency called Xinhua. The purpose of this agency is to record activities for gathering information. The Ministry of Education and the Overseas Chinese Affairs Office are other organizations participating in these activities by contacting citizens of China overseas.

A formal system is maintained by the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information. This Chinese intelligence agency collects technological publications from abroad to help improve communication with China. According to some reports, incentives have been created by China to help businesses conduct economic espionage on foreign soil. The strategic gathering of assets was not originally intended to be used for this purpose.

In 2017, the National Intelligence Law went into effect. According to Articles seven and 14, citizens and organizations in China are required to support the state whenever necessary. The vast reach of this law is the key reason Huawei has experienced issues. This is a telecommunications giant located in China.

International Chinese Intelligence Reports

Reports have shown the CIS conducts extensive activities. Several spies from China have been caught by the United States and convicted. LinkedIn was used to mobilize these spies. This is an online Microsoft networking platform intended for professionals. China also censors data and information coming into the country through a new system. The name of this system is the Great Cannon although it is also referred to as the great firewall.

Data from China is channeled strategically so locations can be targeted for different types of attacks including denial-of-service and malware. In 2019, an alleged attack was reported by Australian media. The country claimed China offered major monetary assistance to a political nation of Australia. This individual was found dead before an attempt to run for parliament could be made.

Chinese Intelligence Agencies and India

There are extensive interests between the CIS and India. This includes remaining current with the deployment and development of all nuclear weapons, IT capabilities, missile systems, and satellite and space research programs. Other strategic relationships have also been formed. Due to the wide range of interests and capabilities of the CIS, the agency has been accused of doing more than collecting information to make better decisions.

Accusations have been made against the CIS for attempts to manipulate offensive counterintelligence, decision-making, and sabotage of technical and human sensors to the adversaries of China. Many experts believe the focus of China is now India. Some of these operations have been interrupted and mentioned in Indian media. This may only be the beginning. According to many news reports from India, the CIS has professional systems in place within the country.

Agents from China are still believed to be conducting espionage at several points in India. Some of these agents were caught in both 2013 and 2018. In 2013 and 2019, reconnaissance ships from China were caught spying close to Andaman Island. The same thing happened in 2018 when the Malabar trilateral exercises were in progress. Balloons loaded with technology from the PLA were caught in 2019 while supposedly spying on India from a location in Tibet.

According to some reports, indirect links have been established as well. These reports showed approximately one-third of all cyber attacks occurring in India come from China. Other reports state China has 42 mobile applications actively collecting information about Indian security. In 2018, information became available showing hackers from China stole personal details and emails from the office of the Dalai Lama in addition to reports concerning the Indian missile system.

In 2009, additional concerns were revealed when China established roughly 30 firms and 24 study centers on the Indian border and in Nepal. The belief is information was collected to increase the influence of China throughout Nepal.

The Core of Chinese Intelligence Agency Systems

The CIS system core is coordinated activities necessary to conduct counter-intelligence activities. One of the main issues for democratic societies is the Chinese have the ability to mobilize support through their core systems. Actions have been taken to decrease the extended abilities of the Chinese including a ban placed by the Indian government on mobile applications from China and the way media firms from China are designated by the Indian government.

This includes foreign missions and those to the United States as well. Some experts believe China is responsible for originating these actions through Chinese intelligence agencies since trust with China did not begin until the 1970s. Due to the reinforcement of these agencies, trust with China is starting to be affected. Connections to China are being reevaluated and changed due to the advantages Beijing has received due to a lack of reciprocation.

Due to the authoritarian culture of China, a unique system for gathering information has been created. Some adversaries are concerned the playing field with China is no longer level. In the past, China has been called a surveillance or incomprehensible state. Unfortunately, this may be accurate. Understanding the Chinese intelligence agencies and the way they operate has become essential for democratic, open and liberal societies.

This may be the only way to adopt effective countermeasures. As the aggression from China continues, countries from all over the world are starting to push back. International policies may be significantly affected by the state of power currently found in Beijing.

Chinese Intelligence Agencies and the United States

National security for the United States may be threatened by China. The most substantial threats include human and cyber infiltration of the United States by security organizations based in China. Although espionage from China has been reported for years, there has been a significant increase within the United States during the last 15 years. Chinese intelligence agencies are also operating overseas. As the capabilities of these agencies increases, China is better able to monitor the United States military once deployed.

The stability and alliance between the United States and China could affect partner and ally countries due to attempts at infiltration. This may have an indirect impact on the national defense of the United States. In the meantime, the security implications of operations conducted in China have increased in the United States including the expanding military and competition of Beijing. The operations, capabilities, roles, processes and structure of intelligence services from China within the United States are extremely important.

The response of the United States regarding the collection and implications regarding national security is critical where China is concerned. Chinese intelligence agencies include:

• Government of China
• PLA
• CCP
• All Chinese organizations targeting the national security of the United States

Each organization in the Chinese intelligence community has a slightly different role. Regardless of the specific organization, the main goals are preserving and supporting the Chinese state. A good example is the MSS or Ministry of State Security. This is a ministry of the Chinese government regulated by the State Council of China, the Chinese government Chief Administrative Authority and the CCP.

Unique Military Technologies That Are Predicted To Come In The Future!

Military Technologies

From swords to machine guns and nuclear bombs, we had everything, right? But there are many more to come shortly where new and more robust machines with better equipment. These are promising technologies that can bring a drastic change in the field of the military. As technology advances, everything gets upgraded with time. The military is one among them, which is very crucial for the countries to adopt. There are both advantages and disadvantages to technological development, and here are a few that might be seen in the future.

Autonomous weapons

These are under robotic development vehicles which can search and destroy enemy troops and equipment either on the ground or in the air without any risk to friendly troops. It’ll detect on computer basics sensor data that identifies target hostile forces along with inbuilt weapons. The ally troop members can carry transponders to identify them as ‘friends’ for safety.
But this can take time and not quickly or reliably discriminate between neutral forces and hostile forces or friendly parties like cows, civilians, tractors and trees. Malfunctions in robots can end anything and everything.

Military Technologies

High-Energy Lasers

The powerful beams can travel through air or space in a straight line. They can destroy with a single strike which can be over 1000km away. They travel at the speed of light using large mirrors focusing on powerful laser beams hitting a small spot on the target. The target might burst due to the heat that is being produced.
The major disadvantage is the bullets due to the unbearable energy. The energy of the beam can be disappeared by travelling through air or turbulence.

Space Weapons

Weapons built-in space can zap anything on the ground, nearby area, and in the air. They can hit the target and defend the territories that are being attacked from space. The leading approach, such as tungsten rods, would impact missiles, and the laser battle stations are also the topic that must be considered. The reaction time must be fast, and the technology is still immature. In space, they need a lot of chemical fuel and electrical power, which they may not provide immediately.

Hypersonic aircraft

Hypersonic aircraft can fly faster than Mach 5, which can strike anywhere within 2 hours. The hypersonic plane would either have its conventional jet engine or hitch a ride on a traditional place to get off from a runaway. At supersonic speed, the fuel mixes with air, and the mixture burns through the engine. There might be many engineering problems to be resolved, and the scramjets can not be used until any plane’s speed is higher than the sound speed. Many experimental crafts are too small to carry a pilot. Serious injuries can be caused if people cannot escape from the beam.

fast growth

Rapid development in military technology