The Red Planet Mars Gets Closest to the Earth in Last Fifteen Years 

Starting toward the beginning of June and proceeding into July and August, you can see a splendid orange-red star sparkling with an unfaltering light. Well, you may ponder, Nothing so brilliant and bright was obvious here previously. Where did it originate from 

This isn’t a star, which you will see while looking towards the east-southeast sky. However, it’s a planet Mars. This year, the Red Planet has been unmistakable just to morning people. In any case, with each passing night, Mars has been getting somewhat nearer to Earth. 

What’s more, this midyear will be a most pleasant event for the famous Red Planet. In late July, Mars will come nearer to Earth than it has since the year of 2003. The planet will be contrary to the sun on 27th of July, which means it will be inverse the sun in Earth’s sky, just fifty-one days before it goes through perihelion — its nearest direct relative toward the sun in its circle. 

On that day, the Planet will blast at the extent of twice as splendid as Jupiter, yet dimmer than Venus. Notwithstanding, the Red Planet will be at far south and so the onlookers at northern scopes will never observe the planet high in the sky, and air turbulence will debilitate the view more than expected. 

Truth to be told, for onlookers in the majority of the United States, Mars will be so low in the sky as to hamper adjustable work. At the point when the planet crosses the meridian and achieves its most astounding position in the sky, at around 1 a.m. nearby sunlight time, Mars’ elevation over the southern skyline will be just 23 degrees as saw from Chicago and 30 degrees from Los Angeles. Then again, eyewitnesses crosswise over South America, South Africa, and Australia will be given an outstanding survey opportunity, for the planet will pass straightforwardly overhead. 

On Mars, this period intently compares to the landing of fall (May 22) and winter (Oct. 16) in the planet’s northern side of the equator, and to spring and summer in its southern half of the globe. Mars has seasons like those of Earth, however they usual twice as long. Numerous fascinating and unusual regular changes occur on Mars amid this period. 

The individuals who complete methodical perceptions can contribute some valuable learning about Martian climate and surface conditions. In case you’re intrigued, you should need to contact the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers — which has a perception segment particularly committed to Mars. 

NOAA recently declares that its first JPSS weather satellite is now fully operational

NOAA– The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, on 30th May, announced that its first next-generation polar-orbiting which is a weather satellite is now fully functional.

NOAA said that JPSS: Joint Polar Satellite System, a weather satellite was renamed to NOAA-20 after it was launched on 18th Nov. It has completed its six months of an on-orbit check. And so it is ready and fully operational now.

NOAA-20 is actually in the same orbit where the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite is there. Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite had been serving since 2014 as NOAA’s primary polar-orbiting weather satellite. Suomi was launched somewhere in late 2011. It continues to operate past its planned five year lifetime. With NOAA-20 entering into service it is expected that it may ends concerns related to a data gap.

NOAA-20 is a satellite with latest and best technology. Before this NOAA has never flown a satellite with such technology in such a famous orbit for capturing precise observations of the atmosphere, water, and land across the world. With this advanced technology and instruments, accuracy will be improved of  3 to 7 days.

With this improved weather forecasts we will be able to save more lives, property and can provide ample time to different business to protect themselves from several weather hazards, said Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross.

Data collected from NOAA-20 is particularly beneficial for the Polar Regions, which cannot be observed from other satellite which is there in geostationary orbit at present. It is very helpful for tracking any storm which is likely to develop in the Arctic, Alaska, and Antarctica, said, Neil Jacobs.

Forecasts on these remote areas have become critical for U.S. fishing, energy, transportation, and recreation industries, which are operating in the harshest conditions on the planet.

Ball Aerospace built JPSS-1. But after that, all the satellites which were in series next to it were not created by Ball Aerospace. They were developed by Orbital ATK, and they were awarded this contract on March 15. The agreement covered JPSS-2 with other options for JPSS-3 and four as well. Though Ball protested the award to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the protest was denied in July’15.

On May 25 NASA announced that it was exercising the options for JPSS-3 and 4. However agency has not disclosed the total value of the options, it was stated that overall contract value including JPSS-2 which is under construction currently is nearby to $460 million.

Scheduled delivery of JPSS-3 is in 2023, and that of JPSS-4 is in 2026. However, these two won’t be launched immediately after their birth. NASA is anticipating launching JPSS-3 somewhere in 2026 and JPSS-4 in 2031. These dates are not confirmed and may change depending on the current status of satellites in orbit.

Richard Branson very close to taking people to space

Richard Branson and his company Virgin Galactic has almost reached the halfway mark to space with its second powered flight of Unity Spacecraft which took off Tuesday. This has helped the company to come very close to fulfilling the dreams of launching its first commercial space vehicle within few months and thereby take people to space. According to the statement of Richard Branson, his company will take two to three months of time before they can finally be ready for taking people to space. He considered this test as an essential step towards achieving this objective.

Branson and his company are very particular in their approach to space travel. He has said that his company will take all the necessary precautions to ensure the safety of the passengers before they can start on the voyage of the space travel. The flight which took off on Tuesday was the second rocket-powered launch. Earlier, the company had suffered a significant setback with its Enterprise Spacecraft which failed on Oct 31, 2014. As a result, the company was highly cautious this time and conducted a fleet of tests to ensure that all the aspect of the rocket is ready before initiating a rocket-powered flight. According to Richard Branson once his company manufactures a “safe craft” that can travel up to 264000 feet above the earth’s surface, and then he will decide to go up. After he also has plans to take astronauts along with him.

One of the major initiatives of his company to stabilize the business of space tourism is to ensure the fact that he manufactures such spacecraft which is capable of being reused a large number of times before significant replacements or refurbishments. As per the latest reports United Spacecraft took off from the Mojave Air and Space Port which is situated in California. It was lifted by the jet-powered mothership Eve. After that, it returned to the earth’s atmosphere using a technique which is known as feathering. It also landed back on the same runway from which it had left.

In other words, applying this technique implies that the company was able to turn back Unity within a period o 54 days from the date of this launch. If we look back at the history, the Atlantis took the similar time from the year of its launch and thereby coming back to earth’s surface. NASA, however, initiated the Atlantis program.

China and U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs Have Merged Their Hands

Space exploration has always been a grand venture, made by humankind. What does the future hold for space investigation? Nobody can answer it correctly, but yes, the progress of space science will never stop. However, there were, there are, and there would be instances that confer some important collaboration of International Space Centers. The collaborations happen mainly with some specific goals. At times, some space discoveries call for stunning arrangements and these arrangements may not be organized by one single space center and that is the reason why collaboration takes place frequently. 

A current piece of information has landed, and that stirred up the media. U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs has confirmed long-term collaboration with China. This would be an excellent achievement for Asia, as not many countries from this continent have been able to take the leading position in Space discoveries. Truth to be told, Asian countries are far behind than the U.S.A and Russia in Space science. Thus, this news of collaboration seems to be too important to ignore. In Vienna, the U.N. Office held a service to celebrate new joint efforts with China. 

The entire world of space science is eager and keenly investigates this unique worldwide collaboration endeavor. China’s Manned Space Agency and the U.N. organization for Outer Space Affairs have been devoted to inquiring about and collaborating for quiet space investigation. In the year of 2016, they consented to an arrangement permitting both U.N. part states and creating nations to direct space probes board China’s new space station that is set to be propelled into space in the near future of 2022. 

The piece of news is accepted gladly by China. This will be China’s third era Chinese Space Station. It is being intended to help a three-man group to live and work locally available persistently. It will be utilized to assemble relevant research to enable better to comprehend space and investigate the likelihood of living there. 

The statement from U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs reads like this: “If we can change the observation that space is something far away, that it isn’t a piece we can imagine. I trust that the following stage in the space-time will be for every one of us to go and invest energy, and figure out how to live in microgravity.” As nations and private area are increasing their community-oriented endeavors in space investigation, it might take us to interminability and past. 

Zombie Satellite Trying to Talk to Earth

Since the time satellites have been launched into space, there have been few simple points which are followed automatically. Firstly, whenever any satellite is launched, everyone hopes for its success and fulfilling of objectives but at the same time, each one of us knows that it is not going to last there in the space forever! Secondly, when a satellite loses its contact with the Earth-based stations, there are n chances to discover back that lost satellite. In simple words, lost satellites have never been fund again! But to everyone’s utter surprise something happened that made us rethink about our rules for satellites! Well, a lost satellite is trying t contact still!

The orbiter called IMAGE had disappeared long back after staying there in its orbit for more than five years. The IMAGE orbiter belonged to NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency). When it got lost everybody, including the NASA officials and authorities, thought that it would never be found again! But then, during last January, IMAGE was sensed by an amateur satellite. It was found that the lost satellite was trying to rebuild connection. It was trying to talk to its ground station. 

Jeffrey J.E. Hayes, who is a program executive for missions (National Aeronautics Space Agency HQ), said that he had been serving the space sector since years and it never happened that a lost satellite or spacecraft was discovered back. He further added that most probably, the IMAGE spacecraft or the zombie spacecraft was gaining life again. 

After the new indications and information on the zombie satellite, the scientists and researchers of US are making every possible effort to discover back the IMAGE satellite. NASA had lost contact with IMAGE in the year 2005, but now the satellite is transmitting again, as per NASA officials. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory members and other scientists are continually trying to locate and contact the lost satellite. As per the sources from NASA, the IMAGE is in good shape and also contains a fully charged battery. Thus, there are big chances of relocating the satellite. Since the satellite has been found again, the scientists are constantly monitoring its signals. The signals keep on vary in strength. Initially, the signs coming from IMAGE were strong, but then they dropped. Later some weak signals were found again. Now the recent signals from the satellite have been found strong yet. Thus, the committed team is trying hard to locate the IMAGE satellite in the best possible way. 

All the Scientific Research Funded by the NASA agency is Available For Free

There’s something exceptionally unique about all the magnificent research supported by NASA – it’s available, for nothing, to everybody. It was the unique moment when NASA reported this move to open access in 2016. Not only exclusively would all distributed research supported by the space organization be accessible at no cost, but also the office likewise propelled an open online interface to make it simple for anyone to get access. The free online document touched base in light of a key approach refresh, which requires any NASA-subsidized research articles in peer-audited diaries be openly available inside one year of production. “At NASA, we are happy this chance to stretch out access to our broad arrangement of logical and specialized distributions,” said NASA Deputy Administrator Dava Newman. “Through open access and advancement, we welcome the worldwide group to go along with us in investigating Earth, air, and space.” 

The database is called PubSpace, and the general population can get to NASA-financed look into articles in it via scanning for whatever they’re keen on, or by simply perusing all the NASA-supported papers. “Making our exploration information less demanding to access will extraordinarily amplify the effect of our research,” said NASA Chief Scientist Ellen Stofan. “As researchers and engineers, we work by expanding upon an establishment laid by others.” 

There are more than 1,000 research articles in the database, and that number ascents consistently as new NASA-subsidized research is discharged. As you’d expect, there’s a huge spread of research on offer, extending from practice schedules to keep up wellbeing amid long-span space missions, to the prospects for life on Titan, and the danger of premature delivery for flight specialists presented to enormous radiation. 

The majority of this is currently free for scientists or anyone with enthusiasm for science to look at and download – a much-needed development from when a great part of the substance was bolted behind a paywall. Be that as it may, not all NASA-subsidized research can be found in the document. As the space organization demonstrates, licenses and material administered by individual protection, restrictive, or security laws are excluded from being incorporated into PubSpace. 

This was all because of a 2013 demand from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, which guided significant science-financing organizations to concoct methods for expanding access to the aftereffects of openly supported research. It likewise takes after a developing general pattern towards more transparency in science research and the scholarly community all the more comprehensively. A battle that unfortunately keeps on being a major battle right up ’til the present time crosswise over both open and private research foundations and diaries.

News from Space Tech Expo

PASADENA, California — Satellite makers and administrators going to the Space Tech Expo here offered to differentiate views on to what extent satellites should keep on working in orbit. For quite a long time, government and business administrators tried to expand the life of satellites by sending them into space with a lot of fuel and parts intended to withstand 15 years of cruel radiation. Presently, the market is differentiating. Clients need everything from CubeSats worked for half year missions to geostationary interchanges satellites intended to a decades ago. On the off chance that Jean-Luc Froeliger, Intelsat VP for satellite tasks and designing, had his direction, satellites would work inconclusively. 

Intelsat has dispatched more than 150 satellites. For each situation, Intelsat sales representatives discovered new clients for satellites in orbit. A more established satellite “may not get a similar kind of income it did toward the start, yet the satellite and dispatch are paid for, and activity costs are least,” Froelinger said. 

Bryan Benedict, SES Government Solutions senior chief for development and satellite projects, said he might want to see satellite transports that could stay on the circle for a considerable length of time albeit. A satellite worked to keep going forever would require broad radiation protecting, which would make it greatly substantial. By and by, Benedict said he might want to see satellite transports fit for staying in a circle “no less than twice the length they do presently” combined with payloads sufficiently adaptable to react to changes in the market. Interestingly, government satellite administrators imagine satellites without bounds being revived all the more much of the time. The U.S. Aviation based armed forces needs to refresh its innovation in circle all the more regularly by moving from satellites intended to last 10 to 15 years to satellites worked to work for three to five years, David Davis, boss frameworks design for the U.S. Aviation based armed forces Space and Missile Systems Center, said amid a prior keynote address. 

Similarly, Brian Roberts, an automated technologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, proposed ten years was the ideal life expectancy for a satellite. “That is the rhythm we are on,” Roberts stated, noticing that the Hubble Space Telescope has worked any longer yet its innovation was refreshed amid adjusting missions. 

Satellite makes at the Space Tech Expo concurred that the perfect life expectancy of a satellite shifts in light of its main goal. “Attempting to search for a one-measure fits-all arrangement is most likely the wrong activity,” said Michael Gabor, SSL propelled programs chief. “There are distinctive classes of satellites, which drive you to longer or shorter life expectancies. There is right nobody arrangement. “Philippe Galland, Airbus Defense and Space’s OneWeb return of experience administrator, said the perfect life expectancy for a satellite relies upon its plan of action. “Once in a while it’s more successful to have a modest satellite with a shorter lifetime,” Galland said.

Big Island’s Damage Revealed through Infrared Pictures

The Kilauea volcano on Big Island of Hawaii has been in the news for a couple of months. The active volcano is continually damaging the beauty and attraction of the Big Island. The continuous flow of lava and the fissures that are erupting from the Kilauea volcano were captured in the latest aerial shots by the Hawaii Army National Guard. The photographs show the lower Puna area of Big Island. These images were clicked on 23rd May 2018. 

The Big Island pictures which are being taken recently are infrared images clicked through satellites. These pictures are important as they are showing the damage done by Kilauea volcano very clearly. While the active volcano continues spitting poisonous gases and hot lava, the images have rightly depicted the whole condition showing natural colors and actual damage on the Hawaiian Island.   

The infrared images of the island are beneficial to understand the correct condition of the Big Island. These images let one identify the damaged area, the wholly burnt parts, and the non-damaged area. While you see the infrared images of Big Island captured by the satellite, you can see the undamaged vegetation in a red hue. Also, you can see the hot blazing lava in bright yellow or rang color. The lava that has cooled down and the vegetation that is wholly burnt now can be seen in the black shade in the latest infrared images. DigitalGlobe (satellite imagery and analytics firm) set its camera in such a way on 23rd May that it could cover a big part of the flowing lava area). The recent position of the camera also took few close-up pictures of Puna Geothermal power plant which is in definite danger because of the lava flowing out from the active Kilauea volcano. 

During the whole incident of lava erupting from Kilauea volcano, the Leilani Estates area has remained as an epicenter. Leilani Estates is a residential neighborhood on the Big Island. The eruption of Kilauea volcano began in the first week of May. After the eruption started, the essential orders were released by the Hawaii country for evacuation of the place. Almost two thousand people evacuated from the neighborhood area called Leilani Estates. Not only Leilani Estates but several other neighborhood areas of Big Island were being evacuated to protect the people from the precise risks that could occur from the hot burning lava. Sources say that the lava has done a lot of damage. It has destroyed more than 50 buildings and has also damaged about two dozen homes. 

Chang’e from China made a successful braking maneuver around the moon

The Queqiao Chang’e-4 relay satellite launched by China performed a moon flyby followed by a propulsive maneuver that will slow the satellite and direct it towards the far end of the moon which is its intended destination. The satellite was launched on May 20, from the Xichang Satellite launch center located in the Sichuan Province. The BBAC (Beijing Aerospace Control Centre) gave a confirmation from telemetry about the successful burn of the satellite. The satellite has entered into the transfer orbit towards second Earth-moon Lagrange point. 

The relay satellite passes moon at about a distance of hundred kilometers above the surface at the closest approach. The successful braking maneuver confirmed the flight ahead. A failure would have sent the satellite back to the earth. The satellite was launched with a focus on facilitating the communication between earth, lander, and rover, which will be sent by China to the far end of the moon by the end of this year. The satellite is carrying Netherlands-China low-frequency explorer or the NCLE which is a radio astronomy package. The same will be used to look for the radio emissions from universe’s infancy. This device will be further used to study the space weather and also provide a range of various other measurements.

The Chang’e 1 and Chang’e 2 were the first two missions of a similar scale wherein orbiters where launched towards the moon back in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Chang’e 3 placed a lander and rover known as the “Yutu” on the lunar surface back in December 2013. Now Chang’e 4 aims to study the far end of the moon which is otherwise not visible and continues to stay somewhat mysterious. The satellite is also known as the magpie bridge and weighs around four-hundred kilograms. The life of this satellite is three years and with this China will be the first to have conducted the first soft launch of the far side of the moon. The Chang’e 5 lunar sample returning mission is scheduled for 2019.

The exploration of the lunar surface has been dominated by China in recent past with the launch of many programs within the same category. The country is aiming to establish a permanent presence on the lunar surface. A proposal for a lunar research station in ten years in under consideration to accumulate the technical expertise. According to the deputy director of China National Space Administration’s Lunar Exploration and Space Program Centre, Pei Zhaoyu, the said lunar research station would be operated by robots.

Journey to the far side of the moon

Chang’e-4 mission which is a part of China’s ambitious project is scheduled to reach the lunar surface in December 2018. It is supposed to become the first landing in the space exploration process to make a soft landing on the far side of the moon. The lander-rover combination will find out the different ways of exploring the “dark side” and also the universe’s radio sky. Another essential thread to this mission was the launch of Queqiao relay satellite which got lifted off on May 18. The primary objective of this relay satellite would be to pass on information from the Change’s-4 to the Earth. The China National Space Administration is executing both of these missions.

The program was named keeping in mind the Chinese Goddess of the Moon and the name “Queqio” means “bridges of the magpie.” Some of the earlier missions that brought this particular mission into the limelight are Chang’e-1 which was initiated in 2007. Similarly in 2010 Chang’e-2 was initiated, in 2013 Chang’e-3 was lifted off and finally, in the year of 2014, Chang’e-5 TI test capsule flew past the moon and got positioned around the Earth.

Earlier, different astronauts as well as satellites have flown past the moon and looked very carefully at our satellite, but no mission till date has been in landing on the far side of the planet. Ths situation was not because the scientists were not interested, but it became indispensable later on to collect relevant data from the far side of the moon as an essential part of the goal in the 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey.

The moon is not tidally locked to the Earth. People from earth can view one portion of the moon. But it does not mean that the other side remains in the dark. It receives solar light when it is positioned between the sun and the Earth.

The far side involves the South-Pole Aitken basin, which is believed to be an impact site over 1553 miles stretched that depicts the deepest parts of the lunar crust. The large basin is considered to be the largest and also the oldest impact feature available on the moon’s surface. It is six times deeper than the Grand Canyon. The site on which the CE-4 will be landing will be the southern floor of the Von Karman crater. This crater is situated at 12 miles across the South-Aitken impact basin.