12 new Jupiter moon declared recently

About twelve new moons orbiting Jupiter have been found and identified recently. 11 among these are normal outer moons and one is being called as an ’oddball’. With this now the total number of Jupiter’s known moons are 79 which is the most any of the planet in our solar system has.

A team which is led by Carnegie’s Scott S. Sheppard has identified the moons in the year 2017 while they were in search of faraway solar system objects as a part of the search for the presence of some massive planet which is present beyond Pluto.

In the year 2014, the same team has found the object in a very distant orbit but well known in our solar system. And they were the first one to know and understand that an unknown massive planet at the border of our solar system, actually very far beyond Pluto have the capability to explain the similarity of the orbits of many of the small objects which are at an extremely far distance.

This putative planet is now known as Planet X popularly or as Planet Nine. In this search team, the other participants are Chad Trujillo from Northern Arizona University and Dave Tholen from the University of Hawaii.

Sheppard said that “Jupiter is just present in the sky nearby the search field where we are searching for a very far solar system object, so we also came across accidentally at the right place and were able to identify new moons present around the Jupiter while simultaneously we were searching and looking for planets at the border of our solar system.”

For the calculation of the orbits present for the moons found recently Gareth Williams made use of the  observations made by the team.“ A number of observations are demanded to make sure that an object is really present there in the orbit around the Jupiter”, he said. And therefore the entire process took almost a year.

Among the new moons, nine is the part of far away outer swarms of moons which orbit it in the opposite direction to that of Jupiter’s spin rotation. These far away present retrograde moons are clubbed in a group of three different orbital groupings and are believed as the remnants of three once very large parent bodies which broke because of collisions with comets or the other moons. The present new discovered retrograde moons take almost two years to complete the orbit of Jupiter.

Extrasolar Planetary-mass magnetic powerhouse detected by VLA 

The National Science Foundation‘s Karl G. Jansky’s scientists are using a very extensive array (VLA) that is the first telescope detection of a planetary mass object beyond our solar system. The object is a dozen times larger than Jupiter and it is a strong magnetic powerhouse and this is a rouge traveling through space without any accompany with any parent star. 

Melodie Kao, who led this study while a graduate student at Caltech, and is now a Hubble Postdoctoral Fellow at Arizona State University, said that this object is at the right boundary between a brown dwarf or  planet and giving us surprises that can successfully help us to understand the magnetic processes on both planets and stars. 

Brown dwarfs are too extensive objects and its considered as planets. This is enough to sustain the hydrogen fusion in nuclear in their cores, this means it powers stars. In the year 1960 theorists suggested that these objects would exist but the first one was not explored until 1995. They especially thought not to emit radio waves, but in the year 2001 a discovery of VLA, that is radio flaring revealed strong magnetic activity. 

Some observations showed that the brown dwarfs have powerful auroras and it is similar to giant planets of the solar system. The auroras seen on Earth occurred by the magnetic field of our planet earth with the solar wind. 

However, solitary brown dwarfs do not have a solar wind from a nearby star to interact with. How the auroras are caused in brown dwarfs is unclear, but the scientists think one possibility is an orbiting planet or moon interacting with the brown dwarf’s magnetic field, such as what happens between Jupiter and its moon Io.

The strange object in the latest study, called SIMP J01365663+0933473, has a magnetic field more than 200 times stronger than Jupiter’s. The object was originally detected in 2016 as one of five brown dwarfs the scientists studied with the VLA to gain new knowledge about magnetic fields and the mechanisms by which some of the coolest such objects can produce strong radio emission. Brown dwarf masses are notoriously difficult to measure, and at the time, the object was thought to be an old and much more massive brown dwarf.

The difference between a brown dwarf and a giant gas planet remains significantly debated among astronomers. The rule the astronomers us is the mass known as deuterium burning limit around 13 Jupiter masses. The Caltech group, they have originally detected its radio emission in the Year 2016 at higher radio frequency and confirmed about the magnetic field that was more powerful than it first measured. 

At the mid of October launch, BepiColombo targets launching Arianespace

In the early morning of October, 19th Europe’s first mission to Mercury will focus for launching Arianespace and ESA have announced. The joint ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will launch on Ariane 5 in Kourou. It is setting a trio of spacecraft for Mercury. The spacecraft will travel together and transfer two science orbiters. The first one is ESA Mercury Planetary Orbiter and the second is JAXA Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. This is a combination of solar power and electric – gravity-assist flybys of earth that is mercury and Venus. 

In October 18th22:45 in local time (GFT) , lift-off is 22:45 in local time (GFT). The chosen date represents the first option to launch. In order to this, some additional unplanned testing performed in Kourou. This launch remains open until November 29th. 

ESA’s BepiColombo project manager Ulrich Reininghaus says that they have had an excellent start to launch their campaign in Kourou and the launch is for less than ninety days. They have exclusively packed schedule, but its great to see their spacecraft building up together for the last time. In may, many important preparations have been completed at the spaceport and the spacecraft has been completed finally. For example- the spacecraft have been fitted with their safety high-temperature blankets such as nitrogen and xenon tanks that have been checked, pressurized and loaded. This test and final solar installations arrays are underway. 

For the major operations, simulations have started at ESA’s operations center in Darmstadt, Germany. Personnel is practicing some events that are non-routine, prepared for all the participants on the journey to Mercury. The spacecraft called stack will make the first flyby of Mercury in just three years after launch. A group of scientific instruments will be active at the time of planetary flybys, with the webcams transfer modules, that is offering the opportunity to capture common images before the major science camera, this is operational in Mercury orbit.  

If separated into their final orbits, the two scientific craft will make complementary measurements. These measurements are the environment and the innermost planet. From it’s deep within to its interaction with the solar wind. This provides the best detailing of Mercury till date. The exclusive result will offer the innermost planet of a solar system and it evolves in close proximity to its parent star. 

BepiColombo is the first Mercury mission and it explores terrestrial planets in our solar system.

Industrial CO2 usage breakthrough

Professor Arne Skerra of the Technical University of Munich (TUM)  is successful for the first time by using gaseous CO2 as a general material for the chemical production of a mass product in a biotechnical reaction. This product is methionine; it is used as a vital amino acid, in animal feed on a widespread basis. The result has been published in the nature catalysis journal. 

The production of methionine from petrochemical is presently done through a six-step process of chemical that requires high toxic hydrogen cyanide. In the year 2013, one of the world’s largest manufacturers of methionine Evonik industries invited the university researchers to present a new process for making the substance safe to produce. Methional occurs in nature that is formed as facile at the time of the conventional process.  

Professor Arne Skerra from the Department of Biological Chemistry at TUM, explains that the idea based on methionine in microorganisms is degraded by enzymes to methional. This released CO2 and they try to reverse this method. He said, because of every chemical reaction in the reversible principal during the wide use of energy pressure. 

Skerra participated in this idea and Evonik awarded the supported project. Researcher Lukas Eisoldt, Skerra started to determine the limitations for the manufacturing process and producing essential biocatalysts ( enzymes). The scientists performed early experiments and determined the CO2 pressure that would be essential to produce methionine from methional in the biocatalytic method. 

Supported by postdoctoral researcher Lukas Eisoldt, Skerra began to determine the parameters for the manufacturing process and for producing the necessary biocatalysts (enzymes). The scientists conducted initial experiments and determined the CO2 pressure which would be needed to produce methionine from methional in a biocatalytic process.

The high-frequency result at a low pressure corresponding to the one entire tire of two bars. Based on this experiment the team reinforced by the Ph.D. student Julia Martin experimented with the biochemical background that is optimized for the enzymes included using protein engineering. After some years of work, it is possible to improve the reaction in the laboratory and could give 40% of the biochemical process on the theoretical background.

Arne Skerra reported that if compared to the photosynthesis, that’s nature is bio catalytically includes CO2 into biomolecules as a building block. Their method is simple and elegant.  Photosynthesis uses 14 enzymes during the process only two enzymes requires. This is the first time that the biotechnological manufacturing uses CO2.

On July 31st, 2003: Mars passed closet to the Earth

Mars is moving into the night sky, just like 15 years before it came closer to the Earth. Its been seen at the predawn dawn earlier this year. According to the telescope magazine, the planet centers will be divided by 35,784,871 miles or 57,590,017 km on July 31st at 3:50 a.m. EDT (7:50 Universal Time).

Since August 2003, this is the closest Mars has come to us. That time the separation was 34,646,418 miles. On that day, the Red planet was closest to the Earth than it was since 57,617 B.C. Now Mars appears bold and prominent in the night sky. Its brightness is measured by magnitude used by astronomers that will be 2.8. This means Mars will look twice as bright as Jupiter. Jupiter is prominent now in the Southern, western night sky, and it will continue to outshine the Jupiter at the September first week.

Diana Hannikainen (pronounced “Huhn-ih-KY-nen”), Sky and Telescope’s Observing Editor says that when you spot Mars rising in the east after sunset, you will be amazed by how bright it looks. It’s pale orange color. That’s why its called Red Planet. Mars has a reddish-orange hue, and this is caused by the presence of rust-colored iron oxides on its surface. 

There are two events are taking place on the Red Planet this week:

Mars reaches “opposition on July 27: At 1:07 a.m. EDT (5:07 UT). This means the planet appears opposite the sun from the earth. Mars remains in the night sky and rises at the sunset and sets when the sun rises. Mars takes 1.88years to circle the sun. Previously the opposition of Mars was 2016, 30th March. The next opponent will be 2020, October 6th. This time the Red planet will be considered as far from now.

This year opposition is significant because it occurs close when March reaches the closest points to the sun. It is called perihelion. The red planet reaches perihelion on September 16th this year. Although Mars is close now, it will remain low for the Southern sky viewers. Mars will appear overhead when seen from Chile, Australia, and South Africa.

It can be seen through a telescope, and now the Red planet surface is hidden by a global dust storm, which started in May. Coming week the weather will be cloudy. Keep an eye on the bright planet, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus.

The Red Sea flushes quicker from Far-flung volcanoes 

Deepwater in Red Sea gets replenished very faster than before and its directly affected by significant climate changes, which include volcanic eruption. KAUST researchers find this. The Red Sea water is known as the saltiest and warmest deep water in the world. The temperature is above 20 degrees Celsius and 40.5 salinity units. The average world depth of similar is 2.5 degrees Celsius and 35 PSU. 

Still, the researchers have suggested that the RED SEA water is stagnant. It takes 36 to 90 years to renew, and the primary source of renewal is water flowing from the Northern Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba in the sea’s basin. KAUST Associate Professor Ibrahim Hoteit, he specializes in fluid earth modeling with a physical oceanographer, Fengchao Yao. They used an ocean circulation simulator to get further insight into the RED sea circulation. 

They compared the temperature and salinity data gathered by six cruises from along the central axis of the Red Sea and found evidence revealing profound circulation changes during the period between 1982 and 2011. They then used atmospheric data to reconstruct the Red Sea’s three-dimensional circulation over a 20-year period. Yao said that they found the deep water of the RED SEA experienced than rapid renewals during the period from 1982 to 2001. This is against the dominant idea that is stagnant. The 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines and the 1982 El Chichon volcanic eruption in Mexico were implicated. Yao explained that the model simulation lined to these deep-water renewals to the global variability. It is associated with remote volcanic eruptions and the North Oscillation. This variability is affecting Europe in many ways. 

In general, volcanic eruptions warm the middle of the atmosphere by the releasing sulfate aerosols amounts that absorb the sunrays for the time of two years. The westerly jet of Atlantic Ocean becomes stronger because for the atmospheric circulation adjusts this warming. 

This increases cold and dry northwesterly winds above the Red Sea. The air and the surface temperature become cold here to trigger warmer waters to raise the water to sink. This is called as open-ocean deep convection. Hoteit says that the floor of the Red Sea is abundant in metals and minerals deposits. He understands the deep circulation is essential for the environmental sustainability of deep-sea. 

EU organic falls downward, and it decomposes into its mineral components. This makes deep water rich in nutrients, and its circulation affects the health of the Red sea ecosystem completely. 

Heavy Rainstorms in Northern India killed 49. How prepared are we for the monsoon?

Despite all the claims and teams deployed to deal with the approaching monsoon, the heavy rains have flooded the streets with water and many buildings have collapsed. In Uttar Pradesh alone, the rain has taken 49 lives. The officials have confessed that it is an emergency and people need to be alert.  

National Weather Agency has issued a warning for the storms. Victims died because of the buildings which collapsed, because of the water that was flowing down the streets and houses, and because of road accidents or electrocution. The disaster management committee analyzed the situation and found several houses to be damaged and around 220 million people affected. The situation is of high alert and buildings require evacuation. 

Torrential rains also will hit New Delhi and Rajasthan. In Bharatpur district alone, 11 centimeters of rain was reported on Friday. The Yamuna river in Delhi has crossed the danger mark and is flowing at a level of 204 meters. The authorities are expecting a further rise in this level. In India, the collapsing of buildings is a common sight. The preparations for Monsoon have always proved to be insufficient for several years. The monsoon season i.e. the months of June to September can be especially critical since the meteorological office has issued a warning for heavy rainfall across the northern part of the country in the next five days. 

Not just in India, but in Myanmar too, floods have forced thousands of people to leave their homes and seek help in the rescue shelters. The states of Karen, Mon and Bago are threatened by these heavy rains and storms. People are walking through water up to their waist. Eleven rescue camps are already running while the submerged areas are being evacuated. Around 6,000 people have been displaced in Hpa-an and in Myawaddy the number is around 4,000. In Karen, this number is as huge as 16,000. The schools are closed, people have fled to other places, properties have been destroyed because of the heavy showers. People are finding great difficulty in reaching to the hospital and other such necessary amenities. There neither is food nor safe drinking water available to the victims. They are striving hard for survival. The government has also taken necessary steps and about 140,000 USD have been released to aid the victims. Reconstructing the city might be possible but the loss of life can’t be mended. The good news is, in Myanmar, no casualties have been reported.         

  

China focusing on capturing the Asteroid and bringing it back to the Earth

When the next time your kids want to bring a star from the sky, you do not have to walk away. Instead, you can tell them to wait. A team of Scientists from China is working on a concept to capture an asteroid near earth that might bring it back to the planet to exploit its resources. 

Li Mingtao, a researcher at the National Space Science Center under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that it sounds like science fiction and he believes it can be realized only. He and his team introduced this idea in a contest of the advent of future technologies held in south China’s Guangdong Province of Shenzhen,, and entered the finals with other 59 projects.

The contest inspired young Chinese scientists to get the ultimate technologies and highlight the innovation. The process would begin with a spacecraft carrying a large bag to wrap asteroid and get it back to the Earth. Then it can be unfolded with a heat shield which will reduce the velocity of the asteroid at the time of its enters in the atmosphere of Earth, and it can control in a no human land, Li explains this. He said this idea is very innovative and inspire to promote the development of space technologies better.

Li said that various significant technologies would have to manage to accomplish the goal. The smaller asteroid will be challenging to discover. Only telescopes on the ground can able to find some small asteroids when they come close to the earth. He is working at the QianXuesen Laboratory of Space Technology with the space engineers under the Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation to make up a plan for a satellite constellation on the Venus orbit. The satellite will be worked to analyze and search the small celestial near-earth bodies with around 10 meters diameters. 

The significant components of the asteroid are not transparent and require more observation, and it determines after analyze. Li calculated a right time to launch the asteroid catcher, that would be 2029, and it could bring to earth in the year 2034. 

Li more often talked with his tea about the shooting stars and he could predict its landing point. One day he will catch or bring back the asteroid which will give enormous social and economic benefits to the planet earth. 

The objects could be invisible under realistic conditions through Spectral Cloaking

Engineers and researchers have various ways to manipulate conceal objects and see how light interacts with them. The latest study shows the approach of the existing cloaking technologies to overcome some critical shortcomings. The first observation was that of invisibility based on the manipulation of the color of light waves, when it passes through an object.  

Researchers say this approach could be implemented to secure transmitted fiber optic lines and will improve technologies for understanding telecommunication, information processing. Theoretically, this concept could be increased to develop 3D objects, which will be visible from every direction, which is an ultimate step in the improvement of practical technologies based on invisibility cloaking. 

Many latest cloaking devices can completely conceal the object, which is illuminated with one light color. In fact, other light sources and sunlight contain various colors. The spectral invisibility cloak is specially designed to hide arbitrary objects entirely below broadband illumination. 

The spectral cloak functions by significantly transferring energy from some colors of the light wave to some other colors. After this, the device restores the light into its real state. Researchers are doing the new approach of Optica for the high impact to the Optical journal society. 

During watching an object, you will see the object modifies the light energy waves which interact with it. For the propagation of the light waves, the most solution is designed for the invisibility cloaking which alters the path of light energy. Another hand temporal cloaking tamper with the speed of light, which is concealed temporarily when it passes through the light beam in a prescribed time.  

Both the approaches must follow different ways as they are taking a different quantity of time and different incoming light colors through the cloaking device. 

According to Luis Romero Cortes, National Institute of Scientific Research (INRS) the solutions of conventional cloaking depend on modifying, the propagation way of the illumination, which is, surrounded by the concealed object. This solution avoids this issue by allowing the light waves to propagate through the focused object and still preventing the interaction between object and wave. 

Cloaking device transfers colors to the spectrum regions, which will not affect by propagation in the object. The expert team is working in the advanced based practical application for a single cloaking direction. This is one dimension wave system, which is fiber optics application.  This reorganizes the signal energy and makes it less vulnerable.  

NEOWISE thermal data give whereabouts of over 100 asteroids

Majority of the asteroids are too far away and at the same time minimal, and thus only the astronomical personnel can identify them as moving points of life. Some of the asteroids are exceptions to this case which have been visited by spacecraft and also a small number of large asteroids which are resolved by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope or even sizeable ground-based telescope or even such asteroids which have come pretty close to be detected by radar imaging.

When the researchers experiment the optical telescope, these individual sources of reflected sunlight can give some significant information and also at the same time some fundamental information. Such information may involve asteroid’s orbit, a specific estimate of its size, some approximation of its shape and to some extent an idea of its physical makeup. 

But to get an idea of such elusive and vital celestial objects, it is essential to get hold of a particular type of instrument. An infrared sensor can, in proper situations, provide data on an asteroid’s orbit and also on data that can be utilized to measure the size of such asteroids even more minutely. Such process can also be used for chemical makeup and sometimes even for surface characteristics.

NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer or the NEOWISE spacecraft is in orbit around the Earth which uses steroid-hunting thermal sensors that help to get a view of the infrared light of asteroids keeping aside the obscuring effects of the Earth’s atmosphere. In a paper that was published within few days in the journal Icarus which was led by researcher Josef Hanus is also a scientist at the Astronomical Institute of Charles University which is located at Prague. This scientist has made an in-depth analysis of more than 100 asteroids that have come under the purview of the temperature-sensing gaze of NEOWISE. 

This particular analysis has increased the number of asteroids to thrice concerning detailed “thermophysical” modeling of asteroids properties that very much vary with the temperature. As a result, the outcomes of such experiments provide a more accurate glimpse within the surface of the main belts asteroids and also will reinforce the capacity of the spaceborne infrared observations to precisely access the sizes of the asteroids