By approaching Spacecraft of Japan, Asteroid Ryugu Revealed

Japan’s spacecraft named Hayabusa-2 sample returned back with pristine images of asteroid Ryugu. According to scientists, it resembles with a spinning top which is 180 million miles from earth. This spacecraft is unveiling Ryugu at the very first time. The early 3,000-foot expansion of asteroid have never been visited for space mission until now. 

In the year 2014 December 3rd Japanese H-2A rocket launched and the second space mission of Hayabusa-2 has been sent to bring samples of asteroids to the Earth. This mission returned with little specimens from Itokawa asteroid in the year 2010. This has prevented a group of malfunctions from capturing the materials, which was planned already.  

With various significant improvements Hayabusa-2 was launched, and instead of traveling to Itokawa, mission coordinators planned a new mission to Ryugu, which is a C type asteroid and rich in carbon and blocks. This formed in the solar system more than 4.5 billion years ago.

The primary purpose of the technological demonstrator Hayabusa was technology and science was the second purpose, which was started by the mission manager Makoto Yoshikawa. However, science is the primary purpose for Hayabusa-2, which was said by the mission manager of Japan Aerospace Exploration agency in an interview with spaceflight. 

According to Yoshikawa, they want to understand the origin of the solar system from both the mission. Again, they want to know the water and organic matter at the starting of the solar system for Hayabusa-2. This is according to the scientific point of view. Ryugu and Hayabusa-2 are recently located 176 million miles from Earth.

In the month of 3rd June, the Hayabusa-2 spacecraft turned off its ion engines, which had completed firing since January. The fuel efficiency enables to operate the thrusters for a long time.  There was a carter like landforms around Ryugu and a bright color rugged formed feature was visible on the upper part of the asteroid, which was viewed from Hayabusa-2. Scientists have noticed these. 

At the end of 2019, Hayabusa-2 is scheduled to depart Ryugu, and in December 2020 in Australia, a parachute will slow landing, and the spacecraft will be the sample carrier for re-entry. If everything goes well as per the plan, then Hayabusa-2 should return with at least a gram of asteroid materials, and this will bring to analyze for the details in laboratories on Earth. This mission is ramping for the same rapidly.

Dust storm on Mars intensifies covering the whole Red Plant

A dust storm has been growing very rapidly since the last week in Mars. Only a week ago, the dust storm covered about one-fourth of the planet; it has not covered almost the whole planet.

NASA’s nuclear-powered Curiosity is clicking pictures of the Martian land which cannot be seen due to the excessively dark sky as a result of the storm. The storm has caused a bit of trouble for the agency as its Opportunity rover went offline since it couldn’t receive sunlight anymore. 

Also being called as a “global weather event,” NASA officially regarded it as a “planet-encircling,” or “global,” dust event.

This event is not one of a kind. A similar “global” dust storm occurred back in 2007 in Mars.  This came after the Opportunity Rover started exploring the plains of Meridiani Planum on Mars in 2004. The dust storm of 2007 had resulted in the loss of communication with Opportunity rover for some days caused by the lack of power in the rover due to blockage of sunlight. 

NASA reported a loss of contact with the Opportunity rover on June 12 when it didn’t respond to a check-in call. It is assumed that the rover is operating at low power and occasionally powering up to check whether batteries have charged enough to communicate back on Earth. As of now, all operations have stopped temporarily by the rover while it waits for the storm to calm down.

The space agency was positive about the endurance of Opportunity rover to the extreme environment on Mars and said that the batteries could stay warm enough to function. But it was also told that the atmosphere is so filled with dust that accurate measurements were very much not possible for the rover.

The storm has affected the working of the rover. However, NASA officials said that the wind was not as big as the one back in 2007, which the rover survived. Compared to the present, dust storms seen by NASA’s Mariner 9 spacecraft and Mars Global Surveyor were much larger. 

NASA’s Curiosity may not be affected by the dust storm, but the thick atmosphere is making it challenging to capture visible photographs for the scientists. 

An update from NASA officials said that the storm shows “no sign of clearing.” The scientists also fail to answer why specific dust storms cover the whole planet while others fade away in mere weeks. 

Philippe Starck’s Womblike Habitat

Philippe Starck, a French designer, has successfully come up with a womblike orbiting habitat. This lush habitat would accommodate the customers of Axiom Space. In 2022, the Axiom Space will begin to launch trips for space tourists into low-Earth orbit to the International Space Station. Philippe Starck has been a well-known interior and consumer products, designer. He has now reached an altogether different phase where he has drawn a womblike chamber for space tourists. According to him, it’s essential for the crew members to feel comfortable and homely. His creation convinces everyone to function happily, enjoying the facilities of the heaven-like chamber.

Let’s learn more about this perfect habitat.

The walls of the beautiful chamber are enclosed with soft padding and LED lights that illuminate the womblike habitat and twinkles it with colorful LED lights. To make the serene view of earth possible, the egg-like shell has a private cabin installed with video screens as well as picture windows. To have a more extensive look at the earth, tourists can visit the glass-walled ‘Cupola.’ The station’s window observatory, ‘Cupola’ is the largest window observatory ever constructed. According to Mike Suffredini, CEO, everyone can comfortably sleep, look out of the window and make phone calls. The availability of wi-fi and high-speed internet would make all this possible.  The affluent journey would cost a handsome price in return for the congenial and friendly habitat.

This would be a 10-day stay aboard trip which would cost $55 million. The total expenditure would also include the cost of a rocket ride to reach the chamber. Compared to Silicon Valley-based Orion Span’s trip which offers a 12-day stay aboard in its space hotel for $9.5 million only. Silicon Valley-based Orion Span’s also plans to open in low-Earth orbit in 2022.

For those who find these abodes expensive then a suborbital flight can also be an option. Though SpaceX until mid-2019 has delayed its plans of sending tourists around the moon, there are two alternatives to experience an affordable flight: Blue Origin will charge around $100,000 to $200,000, and Virgin Galactic will cost $250,000. Both will charge for a six-minute trip to an altitude of 62 miles. There is no idea as to when will these two companies begin these flights, but they assure to provide an affordable plane where the tourists would undergo an ethereal and adventurous journey under zero- gravity.

Is it possible to have a “Space Force”?

The thought of developing a space force is not new to the world. Many Presidents of the United States have shown a keen interest in the space, as a zone for non-aggressive military activities and self-defense.  However, President Donald Trump seems to have an extra bit of willingness to take these ideas to another level.

Recently, President Trump advocated for a “Space Force.” Observers are concerned about this move as this does not seem to be in the best interests of everyone. The reason is that it signifies that the U.S is considering the space as a potential war-fighting zone. Whatever the possibilities may be, but what will a space force look like?

According to researchers, it is likely that the center of this space would be the Air Force Space Command, which has controlled the U.S’s military activities since 1982. The command isn’t completely void of space technology right now. It employs above 36,000 workers and uses various kinds of military technology in space, including the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite network and a mysterious space plane. Moreover, it is believed that they spend more than $7 billion each year, that too only on unclassified space tech.

As for the power of the space force, it is believed that it would have similar functionalities as the Army and Navy, with offices and service academy just like West Point. However, it can be more elaborated upon only after corresponding laws are passed, which aren’t expected to move any time sooner. 

Military action in space still faces questions on its legality. According to legal experts, the international law would restrict the activity of space forces if they ever came online. Also, major space powers like the U.S, China, and Russia are party to the Outer Space Treaty 1967 which states that a single nation-state cannot claim any territory in outer space. This prevents storage of weapons of mass destruction, like nuclear weapons, at any place in the outer space. Adding to that, it says that no military action or weapon testing can take place on other “celestial bodies.”

The Outer Space Treaty and other space treaties may be playing their part in maintaining order, but they fail to regulate the use of conventional weapons in space stations or open space. For precedence, the Soviet Union covertly tested a cannon on its Almaz space station.

A startup named “Spinlaunch” raises $40 million

Picture credited by Wikipedia

Spinlaunch, a newly developed startup in the Silicon Valley, has raised $40 million for their innovative ideas for launching spacecraft, and payloads into orbit. They claim to use a “catapult” like structure to launch them into space which would use very less energy compared to the current systems used.

The idea has not been the unique ones. Since Jeff Bezos, Amazon CEO and founder of the private space company Blue Origin had been through it in the early days of his space station venture. He had dismissed the very principle of the idea as having many glitches and “practical problems” which came from the book “Space Barons.” 

The same idea has been picked up by Spinlaunch, and it has been successful in raising $40 million for it. The investors include the massive organizations like Airbus Ventures, Google’s Venture fund (GV) and Kleiner Perkins. 

The specifics of the appearance of the project are not confirmed as yet, but the company claims to make use of kinetic energy, generated from ground-based electricity, to launch the spacecraft or payload. Since it uses regular electricity, and not rocket fuel, to power the catapult, it’ll provide a very cheap alternative for space stations. However, TechCrunch does believe that some payloads may need an additional rocket motor to enter space. 

Secondly, their technology comes from the fundamental principles of Physics, which has also attracted the interest of many around. It is the law of conservation of momentum. Spinlaunch plans to use energy to spin the small rockets in circles at about 5,000 miles per hour, which will then be flung into space. 

A partner at Kleiner Perkins, Wen Hsieh said in one of his statements that he is most intrigued by the idea of using renewable sources of energy to power the catapult, which reduces usage of highly toxic and dangerous rocket fuel. GV partner Shaun Maguire said the project is unique from the traditional rocket-based methods for space launch.

With high hopes, Spinlaunch wishes to attempt its first launch within the upcoming four years. They are also in talks with four different states to construct launch sites for their catapults. 

This new budding company has successfully raised a considerable amount of capital, but the information regarding its project is still not entirely public. Their website does have pinches of information, but it is unknown how the catapult will look like.

Meteorite Impact Triggers Dust Avalanche on Mars

NASA captured astonishing views of Mars crater, caused by a small space rock crashing onto the planet and triggering a dust avalanche with its impact.

Likely caused by the meteorite impact within the last ten years, the new crater on Mars was spotted by NASA’s MRO, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the orbit, and the agency released relevant images on 15th June. 

The crater is around 16.5 feet (5 meters) across, with 1 km long streak that it started, as quoted by NASA officials. Officials also mentioned that these slope streaks get created by dust avalanches that leave behind dark swaths on the dusty Martian hills. Along the side of the new darker stripe, a faded scar from an old rockslide is also spotted. 

The collision of the meteorite caused destabilization of the slope that it collided with, thereby generating an avalanche of Martian dust, sand, and dirt. This avalanche left behind a dark streak, also known as slope streak, on the surface of the planet. And as pointed out by NASA, the impact of the crater may be tiny, but as seen in the image, the mark it left is massive. Also, the picture shows the scar from an old avalanche near to it. 

Long and dark streaks are not an uncommon sight on the surface of the planet, and researches also confirm that all these dark slope streaks are a result of dust avalanches.  

Meteorites are small pieces of rocks in the space, and when they enter the atmosphere, they flare up and called as meteors. Any part that reaches the surface is known as meteorites. The surface of the Red Planet is covered in dirt, dust, and granules, and the planet is well known to have storms and hit by meteorites.  

Scientists for years have investigated the origin of these marks. Initially, researches claimed that these dark streaks could be the result of the transient flow of briny water, somehow indicating that the planet is habitable, that may have been suspected. Researchers’ gauged subterranean water may have risen to the surface and caused the streaks. This conclusive theory was then supported when MRO was able to detect hydrated salts in such stripes on the planet. Many even had the opinion that seasonal carbon dioxide frosts have caused these streaks. Among all these, in a study published in the journal Nature Geoscience, last spring, indicated avalanches on the planet as the leading cause behind the streaks. 

Using High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., of Boulder, Colorado and operated by University of Arizona, MRO took spectacular some new impact images of the crater. These are some of the most outstanding and detailed photographs taken by HiRISE till the date of the Martian surface. 

Sweat for Science

German astronaut, Alexander Gerst, at a training session at the European Astronaut Centre in Germany in spring 2018, will test special cooling shirts on Earth and in space and is all set to sweat for the project SpaceTex2. On June 6, Gerst arrived at the International Space Station as part of the European Space Agency’s Horizons and will help conduct the first experiments to explore how the human body, clothing, and climate interact, about comfort, under zero-gravity conditions. In the study, the examination of the three shirts would take place. Each shirt with a different cooling performance was developed following the SpaceTex experiments on the space station in 2014.

For Jan Beringer, a functional-textiles expert at Germany’s Hohenstein Institute, which is managing the project, the examination of three shirts in space makes them highly excited about the results. To examine the shirts, Gerst will have to perform six training sessions on the ergometer (space bicycle) or the treadmill while wearing the functional shirts. These sessions will happen outside of the 2 hours of exercise; space station astronauts undergo daily to prevent bone and muscle loss. The information regarding Gerst’s respiratory flow, heart frequency, and oxygen saturation back to Earth via a data downlink will be piped using wearable sensors provided by the Institute of Aerospace Engineering at TU Dresden.

Beringer finds the task not very easy as Gerst has to sweat quite a lot in space to activate the cooling performance of the functional shirts. In normal gravity, warm air descends and draws cold air from the bottom(convection) while in zero gravity body heat form a warm aura and sweat does not drip down, it stays where it occurs which means there is no loss of heat due to convection when in space. 

Also, during any physical activity, heat thus builds up quicker than on Earth, and this results in core body temperature to rapidly climb up the values that are too high to be healthy. In microgravity, sweat and heat transport away from the body very differently than on Earth. Sweating in space doesn’t work quite the same way it does on Earth and therefore the shirts there are necessary as conduits for heat exchange. Although an active human body will still attempt to cool itself through perspiration, sweat doesn’t evaporate in the absence of gravity, and heat itself doesn’t rise off the body. So, to find the right material to wick away sweat and to keep the body cool becomes vital for proper functioning in microgravity. 

 According to the Hohenstein Institute, which is collaborating with the medical department of Charité University in Berlin, the German Aerospace Centre and ESA are on the research where such findings will help scientists create optimized garments for intravehicular activity which would be the clothing worn inside the space station. The institute also noted that the study could also provide valuable insight into the development of functional textiles for extreme climate and physiological conditions here on Earth, such as those potentially brought about by global warming.